It is thought to be threatened by the effects of projected climate change, primarily through future decreases in sea ice concentration, as affected by wind speed and persistence, as well as associated changes in other climatic variables such as precipitation (Ainley et al. 2010). Reduced suitability of nesting habitat could result from an increase in the incidence of severe snowfall. In addition, annual migration and winter survival may be negatively affected by decreases in sea ice coverage at northern latitudes where the species requires a few hours of daylight in each 24-hour period (Ainley et al. 2010, Ballard et al. 2010). The location of research stations near colonies has led to reductions in suitable ground for breeding, excessive visits to colonies and disturbance caused by aircraft movements (del Hoyo et al. 1992), although the impact of disturbance in relation to environmental conditions appears to vary with location (Bricher et al. 2008). Oil-pollution and fishing (for krill and finfish) also pose threats (D. Ainley in litt. 2012).