The main threats are commercial fisheries, oceanographic changes, and oil spills (Mattern 2012). There are no introduced predators on the Snares Islands and consequently the possibility of the accidental introduction of mammals is a continual concern (B. D. Bell verbally 1993). The Snares Islands are the site of a large squid fishery, which may be in competition with the species (Ellis et al. 1998). Other Eudyptes species in the region are presently undergoing major declines (E. sclateri, E. chrysocome), perhaps due to oceanic warming and the associated change in distribution of prey species (Ellis et al. 1998).