The thallus , (mycelium) typically consists of a highly branched network of multinucleate, septate, usually colorless hyphae. Many-branched conidiophores sprout on the mycelia, bearing individually constricted conidiospores. The conidiospores, are the main dispersal route of the fungi, and often green.
Sexual reproduction involves the production of ascospores, commencing with the fusion of an ascogonium and an antheridium, with sharing of nuclei. The irrregularly distributed asci contain eight unicellular ascospores each.
Species of Penicillium are ubiquitous soil fungi preferring cool and moderate climates, commonly present wherever organic material is available. Saprophytic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus are among the best-known representatives of the Eurotiales and live mainly on organic biodegradable substances. They are commonly known as moulds and are among the main causes of food spoilage. Many species produce highly toxic mycotoxins.
Several species of Penicillium play a central role in the production of cheese and of various meat products. Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti are the moulds on Camembert, Brie, Roquefort and many other cheeses. Penicillium nalgiovense is used to improve the taste of sausages and hams and to prevent colonization by other moulds and bacteria.
In addition to their importance in the food industry, species of Penicillium and Aspergillus serve in the production of a number of biotechnologally produced enzymes and other macromolecules, such as gluconic, citric and tartaric acids, as well as several pectinases, lipase , amylases, cellulases and proteases.
Most importantly, they are the source of major antibiotics , particularly penicillin and griseofulvin.
- Penicillium bilaiae, which is an agricultural inoculant.
- Penicillium camemberti, which is used in the production of Camembert and Brie cheeses.
- Penicillium candidum, which is used in making Brie and Camembert. It has been reduced to synonymy with Penicillium camemberti.
- Penicillium chrysogenum (previously known as Penicillium notatum), which produces the antibiotic penicillin.
- Penicillium claviforme
- Penicillium commune
- Penicillium crustosum
- Penicillium funiculosum
- Penicillium glaucum
- Penicillium expansum, a plant pathogen.
- Penicillium funiculosum, a plant pathogen.
- Penicillium glaucum, which is used in making Gorgonzola cheese.
- Penicillium lacussarmientei
- Penicillium marneffei, a thermally dimorphic species endemic in Southeast Asia, which presents a threat of systemic infection to AIDS patients.
- Penicillium purpurogenum
- Penicillium roqueforti, which is used in making Roquefort, Danish Blue cheese and also recently Gorgonzola.
- Penicillium stoloniferum
- Penicillium verrucosum produces ochratoxin A
- Penicillium viridicatum produces ochratoxin
Some material is adapted from the German version
- Harshberger, J.W. A Text-Book of Mycology and Plant Pathology. Churchill Livinstone 1917.