The most significant threat to the species appears to be the decreasing number of nesting and roosting sites caused by logging operations, the demolition of old abandoned buildings and, especially, the sharp decline in the number of suitable and accessible traditional chimneys, which are this species's main breeding habitat (COSEWIC 2007, R. Windingstad in litt. 2010). It is projected that very few suitable sites will remain within the next thirty years (COSEWIC 2007). The number of breeding sites in Quebec is limited, and it is estimated that only 60% of breeding-age adults actually reproduce; a trend which is thought to be replicated across Canada (COSEWIC 2007). Hurricanes during the migration period and harsh weather conditions during breeding season have caused a considerable number of deaths (COSEWIC 2007, Dionne et al. 2008). In its South American wintering area, the species is threatened by intensive logging operations and by fires (COSEWIC 2007).