The desiccation and pollution of the canal system and lakes in Xochimilco and Chalco, as a result of urbanization, as well as the traditional consumption of the species by local people, is threatening the survival of this species. Increased tourist activity is poorly regulated and adds further pollution (Zambrano, 2006). The species is also captured for medicinal purposes. The harvesting is targeted at animals that are less than one year old. It was formerly also captured for the international pet trade, although probably all animals in the international trade are now of captive origin. Introduced fishes (tilapia and carp) have increased to high abundances (a recent study collected 600kg of tilapia in one small channel using a 100m net) and have also impacted axolotls through competition and predation. The animals are also being affected by disease, probably spread by invasive species, and as a result of poor water quality. Although the water regime has changed in the last 10 years, and it is reported that pollution levels are decreasing, factors such as very high levels of bacterial contamination could still pose a serious threat.
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