English: 1=Mechanistic model of an abdomen-flipping Giant honeybee at the surface of a nest. Model, explaining the movements of the body associated with abdominal flipping according to the y- and z-curves in Figure 9 (not considering the x-movements). The left brown vertical bar denotes the two-sided comb with cells on both sides separated by a mid wall. The two short brown vertical bars between the model bee and the model comb represent the subsurface layers of the bee curtain to which the model bee clings with her six extremities (not shown). In this model, the position of head and thorax, and the distance between thorax and the nearest brown bar was kept constant throughout the flipping process. In the film, the abdominal flipping is simplified: the model bee raises the abdomen by 90°, which provokes y-movements (here displayed in vertical directions) and z-movements (here displayed in horizontal directions). Two phases of the flipping are illustrated. In the initial phase the model bee is pressed towards the subsurface layers, when she actively pulls her body upwards using her extremities, and in the second phase, she moves away from the comb and recovers her initial lower position. In this sketch, the changing interspaces between comb and the subsurface layers additionally illustrate the pressing to and moving away from the comb of the model bee. Numbers indicate frames and time in ms; the sketch slows down real-time abdominal flipping by a factor of 10.78 (0.5 MB, MPG).