Comments: Variable according to location. Uses open areas such as alpine pastures, marshy meadows, river flats, and aspen parkland, as well as coniferous forests, brushy clear cuts or forest edges, and semi-desert areas (Tule elk).
No special calving ground is used; calves are born in valleys or in areas as high as alpine tundra. Newborn initially may be hidden in rough terrain or dense cover.
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