Comments: In recent decades, most authors have included Cervus canadensis in C. elaphus; i.e., North American elk has been regarded as conspecific with red deer of western Eurasia. Geist (1998) recommended that C. elaphus and C. canadensis be regarded as distinct species. This is supported by patterns of mtDNA variation as reported by Randi et al. (2001). The 2003 Texas Tech checklist of North American mammals (Baker et al. 2003) adopted this change. Grubb (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) included canadensis in C. elaphus.