Chilean Mattoral Habitat
The Chilean matorral, a key habitat of this species, is an ecoregion in western central Chile that covers an area of approximately 57,300 square miles. This ecoregion is classified within the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome. Exhibiting high plant and vertebrate endemism, the entire ecoregion is classified as critically endangered due to intensive deforestation and persistent high air pollution due to pressures of a burgeoning human population. The reptilian endemism is particularly notable, especially with respect to the tree iguanas; moreover, there are numerous reptiles, birds and mammals of threatened conservation status that can be found in the Chilean matorral.
he ecoregion also boasts a very high level of flora endemism; moreover, it is considered as a critically endangered habitat, with ongoing assaults from deforestation by native peoples of the region, resulting in severe habitat loss and habitat fragmentation. The deforestation has not only reduced habitat, but has accelerated the establishment of large expanses of alien herbs that were brought in during the Spanish settlement period; however, about 95% of the plant species are Chilean endemic, including Gomortega keule, Pitavia punctata, Nothofagus alessandrii and Jubaea chilensis.
Non-endemic threatened birds of the Chilean matorral are the Near Threatened Andean condor (Vultur gryphus), the Threatened Inca tern (Larosterna inca), the Near threatened Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopteris chilensis), the Near Threatened Peruvian pelican (Pelecanus thagus), the Endangered Peruvian diving-petrel (Pelecanoides garnotii), the Near Threatened elegant tern (Sterna elegans), the Near Threatened guanay cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), the Near Threatened Inca tern (Larosterna inca), the Near threatened Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopteris chilensis), the strictly marine Vulnerable Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti), the Near Threatened red-legged cormorant (Phalacrocorax gaimardi)
- C.Michael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2013. ''Chilean matorral. Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC ed. Peter Saundry
- C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Chilean Wine Palm: Jubaea chilensis, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg
- R. Mittermeier, N. Myers, and C.G. Mittermeier. 1999. Hotspots: earth’s biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. CEMEX/Conservation International, Mexico City. Pp. 430.