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A. gigas is the only generally-recognized species of the genus Arapaima. In 1829, Swiss biologist Louis Agassiz produced a monograph of another proposed species found in the Brazilian Amazon and named A. agassizii in 1847. Other proposed species include A. arapaima from Guyana and A. mapae from northeastern Brazil.
Anatomy and morphology
Arapaima can reach lengths of more than 2 m (6.6 ft), in some exceptional cases even more than 2.5 m (8.2 ft) and over 100 kg (220 lbs). The maximum recorded weight for the species is 200 kg (440 lbs). As one of the most sought after food fish species in South America, it is often captured primarily by handheld nets for export, by spearfishing for local consumption, and, consequently, large arapaima of more than 2 m are seldom found in the wild today.
The arapaima is torpedo-shaped with large blackish-green scales and red markings. It is streamlined and sleek, with its dorsal and anal fin set back near its tail. Its local name, paiche, derives from the indigenous words for "red" and "fish".
Arapaima gigas scales have a highly mineralised, very hard outer layer with a corrugated surface under which lie several layers consisting of collagen fibres. In a structure similar to 'plywood', the fibres in each successive layer are oriented at right angles to that in the previous layer for maximum toughness. The hard corrugated surface of the outer layer, the soft but tough internal orthogonal collagen layers and the hydration of the scales all contribute to their ability to flex and deform while remaining strong – a solution that allows the fish to remain mobile while heavily armoured and enables it to live in piranha-infested lakes, where no other animals could survive.
The arapaima has a fundamental dependence on surface air to breathe. In addition to gills, it has a modified and enlarged swim bladder, composed of lung-like tissue, which enables it to extract oxygen from the air. This is an adaptation to the often hypoxic conditions of the Amazon floodplains, but requires the arapaima to surface for air every 5 to 15 minutes. This tendency to stay at the surface makes it more vulnerable to attacks from spear fishermen.
Commercial fishing of the arapaima has been banned by the Brazilian government due to its commercial extinction. Fishing is allowed only in certain remote areas of the Amazon basin, and must be catch-and-release, or harvesting by native peoples for consumption. Because the arapaima produces boneless steaks it is considered a delicacy; some 7000 tons per year were taken from 1918 to 1924, the height of its commercial fishing. The demand for the arapaima has led to farming of the fish by the "ribeirinhos" (as Brazilians call those living on the riverbanks).
The diet of the arapaima consists of fish, crustaceans, even small land animals that walk near the shore. The fish is an air-breather, using its labyrinth organ, which is rich in blood vessels and opens into the fish's mouth, an advantage in oxygen-deprived water that is often found in the Amazon River. This fish is therefore able to survive in oxbow lakes with dissolved oxygen as low as 0.5 ppm. In the wetlands of the Araguaia, one of the most important refuges for this species, it is the top predator in such lakes during the low water season, when the lakes are isolated from the rivers and oxygen levels drop, rendering its prey lethargic and vulnerable.
Due to the geographic range that arapaima inhabit, the animal's life cycle is greatly affected by the seasonal flooding that occurs. The arapaima lays its eggs during the months when the water levels are low or beginning to rise. They build a nest approximately 50 cm wide and 15 cm deep, usually in muddy bottomed areas. As the water rises the eggs hatch and the offspring have the flood season to prosper, during the months of May to August. Therefore, the yearly spawning is regulated seasonally. The arapaima male is supposed to be a mouthbrooder, like its relative the Osteoglossum, meaning the young are protected in its mouth until they are older. The female arapaima helps to protect the male and the young by circling them and fending off potential predators.
In his book The Whispering Land, naturalist Gerald Durrell reports hearing the tale in Argentina that female arapaima have been seen secreting a white substance from a gland in the head and that their young have been noted seemingly feeding on the substance.
Importance to humans
The arapaima is hunted and utilized in many ways by local human populations. Arapaima are harpooned or caught in large nets, and the meat is said to be delicious. Since the arapaima needs to swim up to breathe air, traditional arapaima fishers often catch them by first harpooning them and then clubbing them dead. One individual can yield as much as 70 kg of meat.
The arapaima has also been introduced for fishing in Thailand and Malaysia. Fishing for this species in Thailand can be done in several lakes, where one often sees arapaima over 150 kg landed and then released.
Special care is needed when dealing with these fish as, since they are large, they can be hard to handle. With catch and release after the fish is landed, it must be held for 5 minutes until it takes a breath. The fish has a large blood vessel running down its spine and lifting the fish clear of the water for trophy shots can rupture this vessel causing death. Arapaimas are also known to leap out of the water if they feel constrained by their environment or harassed.
It is also considered an aquarium fish, although it obviously requires a large tank and ample resources. In addition, this animal appears in the pet trade, although keeping an arapaima correctly requires a large tank and can prove quite difficult.
The tongue of this fish is thought to have medicinal qualities in South America. It is dried and combined with guarana bark, which is grated and mixed into water. Doses of this are given to kill intestinal worms. In addition, the arapaima's bony tongue is often used to scrape cylinders of dried guarana, an ingredient in some beverages, and the bony scales are used as nail files.
In the Amazon region, the locals often salt and dry the meat, rolling it into a cigar-style package that is then tied, and can be stored for a long time without rotting, which is very important in a region where few have refrigeration. This is often referred to as the "Cod of the Amazon", and can be prepared in the same way as the traditional salted cod is prepared.
In July 2009, some villagers who live around Kenyir Lake in Terengganu, Malaysia, reported sighting the arapaima gigas. The "Kenyir Monster," or "dragon fish" as the locals call it, was claimed to be responsible for the mysterious drowning of two men on June 17.
The status of the arapaima population in the Amazon River Basin is unknown, hence it is listed on the IUCN red list as Data Deficient. It is difficult to conduct a population census in so large an area, and it is also problematic to monitor catches in a trade that is largely illegal. There is a scope for captive breeding and reintroduction to the wild in effort to increase the population.
In popular culture
- A pirarucu is caught and eaten in a season seven episode of Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations.
- This creature is seen in Endless Ocean 2: Adventures of the Deep at the Cortica River in the Amazon Rainforest.
- It was fished for in Extreme Fishing with Robson Green with a harpoon (1 November 2010).
- The arapaima was in the River Monsters episode "Amazon Assassin". Also, in the season finale of the show's fourth season, host Jeremy Wade caught another Arapaima in Guyana. DNA testing done on a scale sample from the fish suggests that it may possibly be a new species.
- In the anime Sora no Otoshimono, this fish was mentioned after being caught and transported by one of the characters from Brazil to Japan.
- Paiche was featured as the secret ingredient on Iron Chef America on February 19, 2012.
- The pirarucu was featured in a segment of Jungle Cat, a documentary in Disney's True-Life Adventures series.
- A 10 ft Arapaima was caught by host Jakub Wagner on an episode of Fish Warrior.
- A Pirarucu can be caught in The Oregon Trail spinoff, The Amazon Trail during a fishing minigame.
- In the Nintendo game Animal Crossing (video game) and its sequels, the Arapaima can be caught and sold.
Arapaima at the Shedd Aquarium
Arapaima at the Manila Ocean Park
Arapaima at the Cologne Zoological Garden
Arapaima at the zoo (Sea aquarium) in Sevastopol
- World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). Arapaima gigas. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 13 March 2009. Database entry includes a little information for why this species is data-deficient.
- "Long-Lost Giant Fish from Amazon Rediscovered". Science Daily. April 22, 2013.
- "Engineers Find Inspiration for New Materials in Piranha-proof Armor". Jacobs School of Engineering, UC San Diego. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- River Monsters episode name: "Unhooked", Animal Planet, 16 July 2010 10AM PDT.
- Ferraris, C.J. (2003). "Family Arapaimatidae". In Reis, R.E., Kullander, S.O., Ferraris, C.J. Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre, Brazil: EDIPUCRS. pp. 582–588.
- Lundberg, J.G. and B. Chernoff (1992). "A Miocene fossil of the Amazonian fish Arapaima (Teleostei, Arapaimidae) from the Magdalena River region of Colombia--Biogeographic and evolutionary implications". Biotropica 24 (1): 2–14. doi:10.2307/2388468. JSTOR 2388468.
- Giant fish sighthings in Kenyir Lake
- Günter & Muriele Fritsche about the Arapaima gigas - Greenfield Valley Sport Fishing Specimen Lake 2 Hua Hin Thailand (September 2012)
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2009). "Arapaima gigas" in FishBase. 01 2009 version.
- Gourmet Magazine (May 2007 Volume LXVII No. 5) Article: "The Quarter Ton Fish" pg. 106; Condé Nast Publications
- National Geographic News "Search Is on for World's Biggest Freshwater Fish"