The maned wolf occurs in a number of protected areas across its range. Although protected by law in certain countries, with hunting prohibited in Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia, law enforcement is often problematic. At present, there are no known conservation actions specific to the maned wolf, but there are broader attempts to protect parts of its habitat and reduce the impact of animal road kills in Brazil (1). Encouragingly, observations indicate that the maned wolf is able to colonize different habitats and that the species' range has altered in configuration in recent years rather than diminished (12). This has, however, led these wolves into areas of greater proximity and conflict with humans, and education programmes have therefore been started to dissuade farmers from shooting this rare species (2). As of 2003, 146 institutions reported a total of 431 maned wolves in captivity, including 208 males and 222 females (8). However, for unknown reasons, canids breed poorly in captivity. Research has therefore been conducted into behaviour affecting hormones, nutrition and stress in captivity, as well as the use of modern reproductive technologies to aid the process (10). Future studies need to focus on population surveys throughout the species' range, as well as research into how human encroachment and habitat loss is impacting this distinctive canid (1).