This species is in sharp decline in all monitored populations, with an estimated overall decrease of 48% over three generations (90 years). As with many other albatross species, this decline is largely owing to mortality on longline fisheries (1). In Australian waters up to approximately 400 individuals (over 80% juvenile) were killed annually between 1989 and 1995 by Japanese longliners. In the Indian Ocean an estimated 10,000-20,000 albatrosses, mainly the grey-headed albatross, were killed in 1997 and 1998 by illegal or unregulated fishing for Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides
). In contrast, the long-term decline at Cambell appears to be caused predominantly by environmental factors, with rising sea-surface temperatures thought to be causing food shortages (7). Squid fisheries may also impact on populations in some areas (3).