The gentoo penguin has a circumpolar distribution, breeding on sub-Antarctic Islands and the Antarctic peninsula (3). Two subspecies of the gentoo penguin are recognised (2): Pygoscelis papua papua
breeds mainly on the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, Kerugulen, Heard, Macquarie and Staten Islands, while Pygoscelis papua ellsworthi
breeds on the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Island, South Orkney and South Sandwich Island (3). The gentoo's non-breeding range is not fully known, but they have been found as far north as New Zealand, Australia and Argentina (3).