Phylogeny and Evolution
An ancestor of genus Craugastor entered Central America from northern South America in the early Paleocene by way of a hypothesized Proto-Antillean landbridge. (Crawford & Smith. 2005) Present genus Craugastor distribution extends from the southwestern USA southward to Mexico and Central America and northwestern South America, while the sister genus Haddadus occurs disjunctively in southeastern Brazil. The divergence between these only two genera in the family Craugastoridae is deemed to have transpired between 31 and 59 million years ago, prior to the major Andean uplift. (Hedges et al. 2005) Craugastor represents a monophyletic group, as first established by Crawford and Smith. Most speciation within genus Craugastor occurred within the Eocene.
- C.Michael Hogan. 2012. ''Craugastor talamancae (Dunn, 1831) Almirante Robber Frog . GlobalTwitcher ed. N.Stromberg
- Crawford, A.J. & E.N. Smith. 2005. Cenozoic biogeography and evolution in direct developing frogs of Central America (Leptodactylidae: Eleutherodactylus) as inferred from a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 536-555
- Hedges, S.B., Duellman, W.E., & Heinicke, M.P. (2008) New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation. Zootaxa 1737: 1-182.
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