Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Comments: The number of extant, distinct occurrences is unknown but probably is at least a few dozen. Lee et al. (1980) mapped approximately 90 locality records in the United States, but existing evidence indicates that most of those in the northern part of the range are not represented by extant populations (see trend comments). Robison and Buchanan (1988) mapped 17 sites in Arkansas for the period 1960-1987. Mettee et al. (1996) and Boschung and Mayden (2004) mapped 12 sites in Alabama. Pflieger (1997) mapped five locations in Missouri, but none were more recent than 1965. Smith (1979) discussed records from a few locations in Illinois, but populations evidently no longer exist in those areas. Etnier and Starnes (1993) mapped four sites in Tennessee but noted that recent confirmed records are lacking. Ross (2001) mapped 14 sites in Mississippi, but only 3 were relatively recent. Gilbert (1992) mapped 10 locations in Florida, but the number of extant populations was not indicated.