Comments: In North America only pupae are present for most of the year. While Tuttle states the species is univoltine northward, there is a partial second brood in about mid or late August very near the northeastern limit of the range in Connecticut and New Jersey (both Dale Schweitzer), where adults occur throughout July and August, sometimes late June in New Jersey,and not after about 12 September. Phenology is similar in Arizona, although perhaps there is no second brood (Tuttle, 2009). In the far southern US, where appearance of adults in April or May is normal, there probably are three or four broods, but nearly all larvae complete feeding before October. In Louisiana, 96% of 2129 records of adults at light traps are from May through September, with a peak in August (Brou and Brou, 1997). Presumably all stages occur year round in wet tropical regions, although Tuttle (2009) could not verify such claims for southern Florida. Adults are not present among stray or migrating hawk moths, in recent decades mostly Agrius cingulatus, that reach the northeast coast in September to early November. From egg to pupa takes under month, and if the pupae does not diapause, adults eclose in about three weeks.