Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) The overall range is from near Boston, Massachusetts southwest into Chile. In the US, the normal limit seems to be roughly a line from Boston though southern most Ontario, southern Wisconsin, about half of Nebraska, to north-central Colorado and the rest of eastern Colorado, contracting eastward to southern Texas then northwest along the border to southern California, including much of the desert Southwest. In the US it is probably most common along the Gulf Coast, up through the Mississippi Valley and along the East Coast to Maryland and New Jersey. Pupae can survive winters in New Jersey and Connecticut (Schweitzer, 2006) and the species appears to be resident virtually to its northeastern limit. It occurs in southern California and north into the San Joaquin Valley (Hodges, 1971). Other than Colorado and along the southern border, this species is not widespread in the West.