Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) This fish is native to eastern and central Mexico and the lower Rio Grande, Pecos, and Nueces river drainages in Texas and New Mexico; it may also occur in Guatemala and Belize, but records from these areas are disputed (Miller 2005, Page and Burr 2011). It is now established in stream on the Edwards Plateau in Texas (Page and Burr 2011) and has been collected elsewhere in the southwestern and south-central United States; the species' range has expanded through use of it as bait. Formerly, in the northern part of the range (e.g., New Mexico), it probably colonized streams during high water, then was decimated by cold winters; dams now limit or prevent this pattern (Sublette et al. 1990).
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