The greater wax moth or honeycomb moth (Galleria mellonella) is a moth of the family Pyralidae. It is the only member of the genus Galleria. It is found in most of the world, including Europe and adjacent Eurasia, its presumed native range, and as an introduced species on other continents, including North America and Australia.
Its close relative, the lesser wax moth (Achroia grisella), is also a member of tribe Galleriini of the pyralid subfamily Galleriinae. The greater wax moth is the type species of this tribe and subfamily.
Description, ecology and use by humans
The caterpillar larvae, or waxworms, feed on the honeycomb inside bee nests and may become pests of apiculture. Less often, they are found in bumblebee and wasp nests, or feeding on dried figs. The larvae are commercially available. They can be used as food for the rearing of captive animals in terraria, such as geckos or predatory insects.
Vairimorpha ephestiae is a fungal parasite of the wax moth. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is also pathogenic to G. mellonella. The associations of virulence factors are the same for plant and animal infections.
The waxworms of the greater wax moth have been shown to be an excellent model organism for in vivo toxicology and pathogenicity testing, replacing the use of small mammals in such experiments. The larvae are also well-suited models for studying the cellular and the humoral responses of the insect immune system. In genetics, they can be used to study inherited sterility.
Experiments with infected waxworms support the hypothesis that the bacterial stilbenoid 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-trans-stilbene has antibiotic properties that help minimize competition from other microorganisms and prevents the putrefaction of the insect cadaver infected by the entomophagic nematode Heterorhabditis, itself host for the Photorhabdus bacterium.
It is reported that G. mellonella is capable of hearing ultrasonic frequencies approaching 300 kHz, possibly the highest frequency sensitivity of any animal.
- Galleria austrina Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875
- Galleria cerea Haworth, 1811 (unjustified emendation)
- Galleria cerealis Hübner, 1825 (unjustified emendation)
- Galleria crombrugheela Dufrane, 1930
- Galleria crombrugheella (lapsus)
- Galleria mellomella (lapsus)
- Phalaena mellonella Linnaeus, 1758
- Phalaena cereana Blom, 1764
- Tinea cerella Fabricius, 1775 (unjustified emendation)
- Vindana obliquella Walker, 1866
- "Adeona" Rafinesque, 1815 (nomen nudum)
- Cerioclepta Sodoffsky, 1837
- Vindana Walker, 1866
- Grabe (1942)
- Hu, K. and J. M. Webster. (2000). Antibiotic production in relation to bacterial growth and nematode development in Photorhabdus-Heterorhabditis infected Galleria mellonella larvae. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 189(2) 219-223. PubMed
- Moir (2013)
- See references in Savela (2009)
- Grabe, Albert (1942): Eigenartige Geschmacksrichtungen bei Kleinschmetterlingsraupen ["Strange tastes among micromoth caterpillars"]. Zeitschrift des Wiener Entomologen-Vereins 27: 105-109 [in German]. PDF fulltext
- Savela, Markku (2009): Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms – Galleria. Version of 2009-APR-07. Retrieved 2010-APR-11.
- Hannah M. Moir, Joseph C. Jackson, James F. C. Windmill (2013): Extremely high frequency sensitivity in a ‘simple’ ear. Biol. Lett. August 23, 2013. HTML fulltext