Northern cardinals are found throughout eastern and central North America from southern Canada into parts of Mexico and Central America. These birds live as far north as Maine or Nova Scotia, Canada down south through Florida and the Gulf Coast. They range as far west as South Dakota, Nebraska and Texas. They have also been introduced to California, Hawaii and Bermuda. Northern cardinals do not migrate so they live in the same place year-round.
Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )
- Halkin, S., S. Linville. 1999. Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Pp. 1-32 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 440. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America.
- Sibley, D. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..
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