Butternut is found most frequently in coves, on stream benches and
terraces, on slopes, in the tallus of rock ledges, and on other sites
with good drainage [20,28]. It is found up to an elevation of 4,900
feet (1,500 m) in the Virginias [27,31]. In addition to those indicated
in the SAF cover type slot (Distribution and occurence), common tree
associates include black walnut (Juglans nigra), hickory (Carya spp.),
and white ash (Fraxinus americana) [1,3,20,21,24,27].
- 3. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. 
- 1. Beck, Donald E. 1988. Regenerating cove hardwood stands. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd, William E., Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands: Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. SAF Publ. 88-03. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 156-166. 
- 20. Nowacki, Gregory J.; Abrams, Marc D.; Lorimer, Craig G. 1990. Composition, structure, and historical development of northern red oak stands along an edaphic gradient in north-central Wisconsin. Forest Science. 36(2): 276-292. 
- 21. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. 1953. Forest tree planting. 2d ed. Bull. No. R 1. Toronto, Canada: Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, Division of Reforestation. 68 p. 
- 24. Rink, George. 1990. Juglans cinera L. Butternut. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 386-390. 
- 27. Seischab, Franz K. 1990. Presettlement forests of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase in western New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 117(1): 27-38. 
- 28. Smith, David W.; Suffling, R.; Stevens, Denis; Dai, Tony S. 1975. Plant community age as a measure of sensitivity of ecosystems to disturbance. Journal of Environmental Management. 3: 271-285. 
- 31. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. 
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