poor in the fall and winter to fair in the summer . The samaras are
good forage in the fall .
The relish and the degree of use shown by livestock and wildlife species
for white ash in several eastern states has been rated as follows
ME PA WV MI KY
Cattle fair fair fair fair fair
White-tailed deer fair fair fair fair fair
Small mammals good good good good good
Small nongame birds good good good good good
Upland game birds good good good good good
Waterfowl good good good good good
- 22. Michael, Edwin D. 1988. Effects of white-tailed deer on Appalachian hardwood regeneration. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd, William E., Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands: Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. SAF Publ. 88-03. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 89-96. 
- 27. Schlesinger, Richard C. 1990. Fraxinus americana L. white ash. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 333-338. 
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