Black spruce provides good cover for moose. It often grows in dense
stands and on moist substrates, conditions which provide cool bedding
areas for moose . Black spruce also provides good cover for spruce
grouse . In the Lake States, spruce grouse are dependent upon black
spruce stands for much of their habitat needs. The ruby-crowned
kinglet, magnolia warbler, Cape May warbler, and ovenbird commonly nest
in black spruce .
- 3. Allen, Arthur W.; Jordan, Peter A.; Terrell, James W. 1987. Habitat suitability index models: moose, Lake Superior region. Biol. Rep. 82 (10.155). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 47 p. 
- 37. Johnston, William F. 1977. Manager's handbook for black spruce in the North Central States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-34. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 18 p. 
- 38. Johnston, William F.; Smith, Thomas M. 1983. Black spruce. In: Burns, Russell M., tech. comp. Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the United States. Agric. Handb. No. 445. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 96-98. 
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