Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
Sweetbay vegetation and habitats are used by a variety of wildlife species. Squirrels, other small mammals, song birds, wild turkeys, and bobwhite quail feed on sweetbay seeds [47,76]. Deer and cattle browse sweetbay leaves and twigs throughout the year. Winter cattle diets may be up to 25% sweetbay . Sweetbay leaves are also used in nest construction by several bird species . In North Carolina, mammals often utilize pocosin and bay forest habitats .
American black bears: In the Southeast, American black bears feed on sweetbay and utilize sweetbay habitats. In coastal Virginia and North Carolina, pocosins provide important refuge for American black bears . In the Great Dismal Swamp, new sweetbay leaves and stems had a frequency of 43% in the spring diets of American black bears. Scat analyses indicated that use of sweet bay was much lower in other seasons . On Florida's Eglin Air Force Base, riparian habitats made up just 5% of the available area but were the habitats used most frequently by American black bears. Sweetbay was a primary species in riparian habitats that were utilized by bears year round .
White-tailed deer, cattle: Sweetbay is likely browsed by deer throughout its range. In New Jersey's Lebanon State Forest, white-tailed deer browse new sweetbay sprouts, particularly in the first growing season. White-tailed deer may clip stems to 1 to 2 feet (0.3-0.6 m) tall . The degree of white-tailed deer browsing on sweetbay in longleaf pine communities in National Forests of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana led researchers to classify sweetbay as an intermediate browse choice . In longleaf pine-slash pine stands in southeastern Mississippi, sweetbay made up a high of 8.3% of the total diet composition in March. Cattle diets contained much less sweetbay, and March diets were only 0.16% sweetbay .
Other mammals: Beavers fed extensively on sweetbay in the St Tammany Parish of southeastern Louisiana. Although sweetbay made up just 2.2% of the available woody plants, it was utilized at 79.3%. Bark removal was much more common than felling and/or girdling, and tree mortality was rare . In southern Mississippi, cotton mice were captured most often from bayhead vegetation, suggesting this habitat is important .
Birds: Eastern kingbirds, mockingbirds, robins, wood thrushes, and red-eyed vireos feed on sweet bay seeds and often use sweetbay leaves as nest material . Swainson's warblers also use sweetbay leaves in nest construction .
Palatability/nutritional value: Several references report the palatability and/or nutritional content of sweetbay. For information from wetlands of the New Jersey pine barrens, see ; from pine forests of the Siecke State Forest in Texas, see ; and from longleaf pine-slash pine stands in southeastern Mississippi, see .
- 18. Clark, Mary K.; Lee, David S.; Funderburg, John B., Jr. 1985. The mammal fauna of Carolina bays, pocosins, and associated communities in North Carolina: an overview. Brimleyana. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State Museum of Natural History. 11: 1-38. 
- 47. Halls, L. K. 1973. Flowering and fruiting of southern browse species. Res. Pap. SO-90. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 10 p. 
- 14. Chabreck, Robert H. 1958. Beaver-forest relationships in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 22(2): 179-183. 
- 35. Ehrenfeld, Joan G. 1986. Wetlands of the New Jersey Pine Barrens: the role of species composition in community function. The American Midland Naturalist. 115(2): 301-313. 
- 45. Goodrum, Phil D.; Reid, Vincent H. 1958. Deer browsing in the longleaf pine belt. In: Proceedings, 58th annual meeting of the Society of American Foresters; 1958 September 28-October 2; Salt Lake City, UT. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters: 139-143. 
- 52. Hellgren, Eric C.; Vaughan, Michael R. 1988. Seasonal food habits of black bears in Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia-North Carolina. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 42: 295-305. 
- 68. Lay, Daniel W. 1957. Browse quality and the effects of prescribed burning in southern pine forests. Journal of Forestry. 55: 342-347. 
- 69. Limpert, Dana. 1993. Water gardening for wildlife. Wildflower. 6(1): 16-27. 
- 73. Little, Silas; Moorhead, George R.; Somes, Horace A. 1958. Forestry and deer in the pine region of New Jersey. Stn. Pap. No. 109. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 33 p. 
- 76. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p. 
- 84. Meanley, Brooke. 1971. Natural history of Swainson's warbler. North American Fauna No. 69. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Sport Fish and Wildlife. 90 p. 
- 86. Mitchell, Wilma Ann. 1980. Evaluation of white-tailed deer and cattle diets in two southeastern pine forests. Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University. 236 p. Dissertation. 
- 116. Stratman, Marty R.; Alden, C. David; Pelton, Michael R.; Sunquist, Melvin E. 2001. Habitat use by American black bears in the sandhills of Florida. Ursus. 12: 109-114. 
- 140. Wolfe, James L.; Lohoefener, Ren. 1983. The small mammal fauna of a longleaf-slash pine forest in southern Mississippi. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences. 28(5): 37-47. 
- 125. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds. 2006. Wetlands: Bogs, [Online]. In: Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds (Producer). Available: http://www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/types/bog.html [2008, May 7]. 
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