Deciduous holly is moderately tolerant to periodic flooding. Mature
trees can withstand flooding of up to 35 percent of the growing season.
Saplings have survived 105 days of flooding from March to July .
Near Alton, Illinois, deciduous holly maintained vigorous growth through
4 years of continuous flooding, but declined in the fifth year . It
is more likely to survive in frequently flooded plots than is common
persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) or elms (Ulmus spp.) .
Deciduous holly can supress regeneration of timber species .
Control: Deciduous holly is susceptible to stem injection of 2,4-D and
glyphosate [10,22]. Deciduous holly seedling counts were highest on
bottomland hardwood sites that had been harvested and site-prepared by
herbicide stem injection of all stems larger than 2 inches (5 cm) d.b.h.
The lowest numbers of deciduous holly seedlings occurred on sites that
had been harvested and site-prepared by shearing . When managing
for white-tailed deer, burning or slashing deciduous holly stems is
preferable to herbicide application; the sprouts resulting from those
treatments provide deer browse .
Deciduous holly is a good choice in plantings for wildlife; individual
plant fruit production is consistent from year to year, and a high
percentage (greater than 70 percent) of individuals bear fruit .
Increase: Production of deciduous holly browse was highest under medium-
thinning intensity in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations .
Deciduous holly can be propagated by cuttings .
- 2. Blair, Robert M. 1960. Deer forage increased by thinnings in a Louisiana loblolly pine plantation. Journal of Wildlife Management. 24(4): 401-405. 
- 9. Green, William E. 1947. Effect of water impoundment on tree mortality and growth. Journal of Forestry. 45(2): 118-120. 
- 10. Halls, Lowell K. 1977. Possumhaw/Ilex decidua Walt. In: Halls, Lowell K., ed. Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 44-45. 
- 11. Hook, D. D. 1984. Waterlogging tolerance of lowland tree species of the South. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 8: 136-149. 
- 14. Hurst, George A.; Bourland, Thomas R. 1980. Hardwood density and species composition in bottomland areas treated for regeneration. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4(3): 122-127. 
- 22. McLemore, B. F. 1984. A comparison of herbicides for tree injection. In: Proceedings, 37th annual meeting of the southern Weed Science Society: 161-167. 
- 28. Billings, W. D.; Thompson, J. H. 1957. Composition of a stand of old bristlecone pines in the White Mountains of California. Ecology. 38(1): 158-160; 1957. 
- 37. Streng, Donna R.; Glitzenstein, Jeff S.; Harcombe, P. A. 1989. Woody seedling dynamics in an east Texas floodplain forest. Ecological Monographs. 59(2): 177-204. 
- 42. Whaley, Jim. 1991. Ilex decidua `Warren's red'. American Nurseryman. 174(8): 66. 
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