More info for the term: phenology
Redosier dogwood flowers in spring. Flowering may occur slightly earlier in the southern part of its range (May) [43,137,138,175,207,313] than in the northern part of its range (June) [195,255,282,312]. Often redosier dogwood flowers twice in a growing season. In the Adirondack Uplands of New York, redosier dogwood flowered in early June, and after fruits matured in August, there was often a second blooming season. In this region, redosier dogwood was the first and last dogwood species blooming . In the northeastern United States, redosier dogwood flowers first in May or June and flowers again in late summer . This flowering pattern has also been reported in Colorado  and the northern Great Plains . In 9 years of observations made in northeastern Illinois and southeastern Wisconsin, the earliest redosier dogwood flowers appeared on 4 May and the latest on 25 September . Mature redosier dogwood fruits are generally available from July to November [173,217,266,286,312,313].
In a common garden experiment, researchers found that fall phenology events such as changes in stem and leaf color and leaf abscission were largely controlled by photoperiod, and spring phenology events such as bud break and flowering were largely controlled by temperature. Growth, however, was largely controlled genetically. These redosier dogwood clones collected from 21 sites ranging from latitudes of 40 to 65 degrees were grown in a common garden in St. Paul, Minnesota .
In a 60- to 80-year-old boreal mixedwood forest near Lac La Biche, Alberta, starch content of stolons increased from spring to late summer and fall. Sugar content was greatest in September and much lower in June, July, and August . In Massachusetts, the concentration of starch in current year's stem growth was highest in October, decreased through the fall, and was barely detectable in January. Starch content increased in the spring and summer with peaks in April and August, but decreased to about half or less by October. Total sugar content was inversely related to starch content . Redosier dogwood stems collected in northern Alberta had starch in October and May, but there was little to no starch in stems in December and February. Oils and fats were present in stems in all months of anaylsis including October, December, February, and May .
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