Site Characteristics and Plant Communities
Site characteristics: Throughout its range, redosier dogwood is most common or abundant in moist to wet areas such as shorelines , meadows , floodplains , marshes , swamps, bogs , and fens . However, it also occurs in forests, woodlands, shrub thickets, and sand dunes [139,235,282,286,312,318].
In many areas, redosier dogwood is more common on floodplains and moist valley bottoms than on upland sites. It occurs throughout British Columbia but is most abundant in broad river valleys at low elevations . In the Vancouver Forest Region, redosier dogwood was characteristic of active floodplain ecosystems in submontane to montane zones . In eastern Washington, it was primarily found at riparian and wetland sites, rarely in the uplands . In western Oregon and northern California, it occurred significantly more often in streamside environments than on hill slopes (P=0.004) . In giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) groves on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, redosier dogwood was restricted to riparian areas .
Site indicator value: In western North America and the Great Lakes region, redosier dogwood is an indicator species. In British Columbia, redosier dogwood indicated very moist to wet, nitrogen-rich soils, and friable forest floors . In the Vancouver Forest Region, it was characteristic of active floodplain sites in submontane to montane vegetation where soils were moist to wet with moderate to very high levels of nutrients . In the western Sierra Nevada, redosier dogwood was an indicator species for the California red fir (Abies magnifica) riparian dominance type . Along the South Fork of the Snake River, redosier dogwood indicated moist sites within cottonwood (Populus spp.) stands . The Bureau of Land Management in Montana considered it a facultative or obligate wetland species and used it as a key species in riparian inventory and monitoring . In eastern Montana, redosier dogwood was a mesic forest indicator in upland hardwood stands . In the southern boreal forest regions of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, presence of redosier dogwood was a good indication of very moist sites . At Candle Lake, in central Saskatchewan, redosier dogwood was an indicator of very eutrophic, very moist, and basic (pH 7-7.9) peatlands in boreal forests . In the Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area of Minnesota, redosier dogwood was generally characteristic of peatlands with a pH of 5.8 to 7 that received minerotrophic waters .
Climate: Redosier dogwood is widespread in boreal, temperate, and cool mesothermal climates  and hardy in USDA zones 2 to 7 . Redosier dogwood is not particularly drought tolerant  and, in upland sites, is generally restricted to or most conspicuous in areas receiving more than 20 inches (510 mm) of precipitation annually . However, in propagation and restoration studies, redosier dogwood showed "extreme" drought tolerance once established .
Redosier dogwood can survive extremely cold temperatures , but in the Alaskan taiga, it is restricted to warm sites . Pellett  reported in the Journal of Aboriculture that when actively growing, redosier dogwood may be killed by temperatures just a few degrees below freezing, but when fully acclimated, it survived severe mid-winter temperatures without injury. In a common garden experiment, redosier dogwood clones were collected from sites where the growing season ranged from 90 to 255 days, minimum temperature exposure ranged from -66 to 3 °F (-54 to -16 °C), and altitudes ranged from 12 to 7,000 feet (4-2,100 m). In laboratory studies, all redosier dogwood clones acclimated to temperatures much lower than would ever be experienced in nature (-130 °F (-90 °C)). The average growth rate of clones collected from areas with warm climates was 11.5 inch (29.1 cm)/plant/day, and for clones collected from areas with cool climates was 1.7 inch (4.4 cm)/plant/day .
Local climates in redosier dogwood habitats were described from the western and Great Lakes regions of the United States. In western Washington, redosier dogwood was considered a dominant species in western hemlock-western redcedar (Tsuga heterophylla-Thuja plicata) forests in the eastern Cascade Range but was not listed as a dominant in forest types in the western or central Cascades. The eastern Cascades received less precipitation and winter snow, experienced more severe summer droughts, and had more strongly contrasting seasonal temperatures and diurnal temperatures than the western and central regions . In eastern Washington, redosier dogwood occurred primarily in riparian and wetland sites in warm, relatively wide valleys at low to moderate elevations where annual precipitation ranged from less than 20 inches (510 mm) to more than 100 inches (250 mm) . Field observations in Michigan indicated that redosier dogwood was most typical of sites with high levels of moisture and light and moderate levels of heat and nutrients . In New Brunswick, redosier dogwood was the characteristic shrub in western hemlock and white spruce (Picea glauca) forest communities occurring at high-elevation sites where precipitation levels were high, temperatures were low, and growing seasons were short .
Elevation: Throughout North America, redosier dogwood is generally found at elevations between 1,500 and 10,000 feet (500-3,000 m) . In British Columbia, occurrence of redosier dogwood decreased with increasing elevation . In seral shrub communities within the western hemlock-western redcedar zone in northern Idaho, frequency of redosier dogwood was significantly greater at low- to mid-slope positions (7-8%) than at high-slope positions (1%) (P<0.05) .
|Local elevation ranges for redosier dogwood reported in the United States and Canada|
|Arizona||Mostly 5,000-9,000 feet (1,500-2,700 m) [138,165]|
|California||<9,200 feet (2,800 m) [112,207,266]|
|Colorado||4,500-10,000 feet (1,400-3,000 m) |
|Nevada||4,500-8,900 feet (1,400-2,700 m) |
|New Mexico||5,500-9,000 feet (1,700-2,700 m), from foothills to subalpine regions [43,165,175]|
|New York |
|100-3,700 feet (30-1,100 m) |
|Utah||4,500-10,010 feet (1,370-3,050 m) |
|Great Basin||Valley bottoms to 9,000 feet (2,700 m) |
|Rocky Mountains||4,500-10,010 feet (1,370-3,050 m) (review of revegetation/reclamation guides by )|
|Southwestern US||1,500-9,000 feet (460-2,700 m) |
Soils: Redosier dogwood grows best in rich, moist, poorly drained soils with high levels of nutrients, but it tolerates a wide range of soil conditions , ranging from moderately acidic to alkaline with moderate to high nutrient levels [35,101]. In the Adirondack Uplands of New York, redosier dogwood occurred on sites with limestone, gneiss, and anorthosite parent materials . At the Crystal Lake Experimental Farm in Iowa, redosier dogwood survived well when planted on peat and calcareous muck soils . In shrub carr vegetation around White Clay Lake, Wisconsin, the distribution of redosier dogwood was not related to soil type and redosier dogwood was considered a poor indicator of soil conditions .
Redosier dogwood was most common at sites with rich alkaline soils in Nova Scotia  but was somewhat intolerant of alkaline soils in the southwestern United States . In Wisconsin, the most productive redosier dogwood stands occurred where soil pH ranged from 5.5 to 7.5 and the minimum organic matter and silt and clay contents were 1.2% and 7%, respectively (measured at 1 to 2.5 feet (0.3-0.8 m) deep) . In the northern Great Lakes region, redosier dogwood was most commonly associated with minerotrohpic peatlands (also referred to as iron-rich fens) where soil pH typically ranged from 6 to 7.5 . In Newfoundland, redosier dogwood occurred at wet sites with high to very high nutrient contents . Based on field observations in Michigan, redosier dogwood was most typical of sites with high levels of moisture and moderate levels of nutrients . In Alberta's boreal mixedwoods ecoregion, the white spruce (Picea glauca)/redosier dogwood/wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis) vegetation association occurred on moderately well to poorly drained Orthic Gleysols with high levels of nutrients . In the sub-boreal spruce zone near Prince George, British Columbia, redosier dogwood had a narrow amplitude with respect to soil nutrient conditions and was generally restricted to sites with relatively high rates of exchangeable calcium and magnesium (Wali 1969 cited in ).
Soil moisture: Redosier dogwood occupies sites ranging from dry to very wet, but abundance and growth are typically greatest at moist to wet sites. In central Idaho, redosier dogwood occurred in dry to wet grand fir (Abies grandis) and white fir (A. concolor) stands, but cover was greatest in wet stands . In bottomland hardwood forests of western Montana, redosier dogwood was most common at the wettest sites . In a survey of farmers and ranchers in Montana and North Dakota, those who irrigated their windbreaks ranked redosier dogwood's performance significantly higher than respondents that did not irrigate (P≤0.05) . In Manitoba's Riding Mountain National Park, abundance of redosier dogwood peaked in bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) forest stands with intermediate moisture levels when a dry to wet gradient was evaluated . In northeastern Illinois, frequency of redosier dogwood was greatest in hydric sedge (Carex spp.) and cattail (Typha ssp.) marshes with very poor drainage and a water table at or near the soil surface. Redosier dogwood also occurred in hydric calcareous fens, wet-mesic calcareous seeps, and sedge meadows with poor to imperfect drainage . In a survey of 102 boreal conifer-hardwood stands in the Great Lakes region, redosier dogwood was present in 9 stands characterized as dry and 14 stands characterized as wet . When poorly drained and better drained speckled alder (Alnus incana subsp. rugosa) swamps were compared at the Dunbar Forest Experiment Station in Michigan, total aboveground biomass of redosier dogwood was greatest at the better drained site with very fine sandy loam soils and least at the poorly drained site with silty clay loam soils . In the Haut-Saint-Laurent region of Quebec, redosier dogwood shrublands occurred on flat upland sites with poor to very poor drainage but were not highly associated with any parent material .
Riparian habitats: Characteristics of riparian sites occupied by redosier dogwood range from low- to steep-gradient stream types with fine to coarse-textured soils. In British Columbia, redosier dogwood was most abundant at low elevations in broad river valleys with gleyed or regosolic soils (review by ). In the sub-boreal spruce zone in the Prince Rupert Forest Region, redosier dogwood was characteristic of and often dominated cottonwood (Populus spp.) bottomland communities along rivers and streams with wide, meandering floodplains . In the National Forests of eastern Washington, redosier dogwood was an understory dominant in forests and woodlands along low- to moderate-gradient streams that generally occurred in wide valley areas. Characteristics of riparian sites dominated by redosier dogwood shrublands ranged from steep-gradient streams with high sediment transport potential to low-gradient, highly sinuous streams with well-developed floodplains . In central Idaho, the water birch (Betula occidentalis)/red-osier dogwood riparian association occurred along steep-gradient stream types with coarse-textured soils , and the gray alder (Alnus incana)-redosier dogwood tall shrub community type occurred in narrow, low-elevation canyons along the Salmon River and its tributaries where soils were excessively drained to somewhat poorly drained . In eastern Idaho and western Wyoming, redosier dogwood was dominant in riparian community types on coarse-textured soils with at least 35% rock and water table depths of 20 to 38 inches (51-97 cm) . The redosier dogwood shrubland type in western Montana was most common adjacent to moderate- to high-gradient rivers with poorly developed, coarse-textured soils . In eastern Nevada, redosier dogwood was most common along Type 3 streams that drained alluvial landforms and had wide valley floors .
Flood tolerance: Redosier dogwood is tolerant of scouring and flooding . An extension bulletin from Utah suggests that redosier dogwood shrubs prefer wet soils with good drainage and tolerate standing water for short periods , and a review of revegetation and reclamation guides indicates that growing season flooding is tolerated . In the only study that directly evaluated flooded sites for an extended period, redosier dogwood survived and was "hardy" after 7 years of water above root crown level in permanently flooded sites created by construction of locks and dams along the Upper Mississippi River . In British Columbia, redosier dogwood occurred on regularly flooded sites and tolerated fluctuating water tables [20,143]. The redosier dogwood shrubland type in western Montana also tolerated prolonged flooding and variable water table depths, which experienced large seasonal fluctuations . When the Fraser, Nooksack, Skagit, and Columbia rivers reached the highest flood stage seen in over 50 years in the Pacific Northwest, redosier dogwood "suffered little more than chlorosis" .
Plant communities: Redosier dogwood occurs in a variety of forest, woodland, shrubland, and grassland community types along streams, in canyons or ravines, or near marshes, springs, or other wet areas. It is recognized as an understory dominant in many riparian forest, woodland, and shrubland types (see Table 1).
Forests and woodlands: Redosier dogwood is noted as an understory species in western, central, and eastern forest cover types of the United States and Canada.Western forest types include:
- white spruce-aspen (Populus spp.) 
- black cottonwood-willow (P. trichocarpa-Salix spp.) 
- cottonwood-willow 
- redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) 
- hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) 
- bur oak 
- silver maple-American elm (Acer saccharinum-Ulmus americana) 
- balsam fir (Abies balsamea) 
- black spruce (Picea mariana) 
- tamarack (Larix laricina) 
- bigtooth aspen and quaking aspen (Populus grandidentata and P. tremuloides) 
- northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis) 
- black ash (Fraxinus nigra)-American elm-red maple (Acer rubrum) 
Alaska and Western Canada: Redosier dogwood is common in forests and woodlands throughout Alaska and western Canada. In Alaska, an open to dense redosier dogwood shrub layer occurred with balsam poplar and black cottonwood in cold deciduous forests on bottomland sites in the Yukon and Kuskokwim drainages . In British Columbia, redosier dogwood was often dominant in alluvial floodplain forests . In the northern part of the Province, redosier dogwood occurred within the boreal white and black spruce zone, sub-boreal spruce (Picea spp.) zone, and sub-boreal pine (Pinus spp.)–spruce zone but was absent from the northern portion of the Engelmann spruce–subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa) zone . In the Vancouver Forest Region, redosier dogwood was characteristic of submontane to montane, active floodplain ecosystems, which often support productive stands of black cottonwood, western redcedar, and Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis) . Redosier dogwood was also common in the shrub layer of aspen parkland communities, particularly in moist locations occurring between the Great Plains grasslands and northern coniferous forests of western Canada . In central Alberta, redosier dogwood was common in seral cottonwood stands, with a frequency of 95% in balsam poplar, 75% in balsam poplar-quaking aspen, and 65% in quaking aspen stands. Redosier dogwood was described as occasional to frequent in climax white spruce forests .
Great Basin, California, and Southwest: Redosier dogwood was associated with several riparian forest and woodland types in the southwestern United States. In the southern portion of the Snake Range in eastern Nevada, it was the dominant shrub in a mixed community type with riparian species such as narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) and narrowleaf willow (Salix exigua) and upland species such as singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) . On the western slope of the Sierra Nevada in California, redosier dogwood was restricted to riparian sites in giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) groves . In Arizona and New Mexico, redosier dogwood was common in ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands .
Northern Rockies and Northern Great Plains: Redosier dogwood was particularly common in cottonwood-dominated riparian communities in the northern Rockies and Great Plains. When cottonwood stands were surveyed on the South Fork of the Snake River, narrowleaf cottonwood/redosier dogwood community types were most common in depressions and swales with fine-textured soils and high moisture levels . In the southern part of the Bob Marshall Wilderness in Montana, redosier dogwood cover was relatively high in the black cottonwood floodplain vegetation type . When researchers studied wooded draws near the Matador Research Station in southern Saskatchewan, average redosier dogwood cover was greatest (15%) in the Bebb willow (Salix bebbiana) woodland type, which was restricted to narrow gravel stream channels . However at Candle Lake, in the central part of the Province, redosier dogwood did not show specificity to any tree canopy type, occurring in the understory of tree-age and sapling-age forests dominated by balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera), quaking aspen, paper birch (Betula papyrifera), white spruce, black spruce, and balsam fir . In the quaking aspen-paper birch community type in McKenzie County, North Dakota, redosier dogwood dominated the shrub layer on extremely mesic north-facing slopes near springs. Density of redosier dogwood was as high as 16,872 stems/ha . In the Badlands of North Dakota, redosier dogwood was most common in cottonwood woodlands largely restricted to the floodplains of the Little Missouri River and less common in Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) woodlands .
Great Lakes and Eastern Canada: Several woodland and forest types have redosier dogwood as a common shrub layer component in the Great Lakes and eastern Canada. In the Rainy River section of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Forest region, redosier dogwood was a dominant shrub in 3 community types: the mesotrophic, moist, redosier dogwood-beaked hazelnut-arctic sweet coltsfoot (Corylus cornuta-Petasites frigidus) type on glacial soils with white spruce and hardwoods in the canopy; the eutrophic, very fresh, redosier dogwood-beaked hazelnut-arctic sweet coltsfoot type on alluvial soils with primarily aspen and ash (Fraxinus spp.) in the canopy; and the eutrophic, wet, redosier dogwood/hairy sedge-yellow marsh marigold (Carex lacustris-Caltha palustris) type on mineral soils with tamarack, aspen, and black spruce in the canopy . In New Brunswick, redosier dogwood occurred in bur oak forests at meadow and shoreline sites  and in northern whitecedar-alder/hylocomium moss (Alnus spp./Hylocomium umbratum) and white spruce/naked miterwort/western oakfern (Mitella nuda/Gymnocarpium dryopteris) forest communities at high-elevation sites experiencing high levels of precipitation, low temperatures, and short growing seasons .
Shrublands: Redosier dogwood is a dominant in many shrubland types associated with streams, marshes, and other wet sites throughout its range. In southeast Alaska, redosier dogwood was scattered in clacareous fens . In Sacramento Valley, California, redosier dogwood occurred in shrub thickets with buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) and Pacific dewberry (Rubus vitifolius) on the upper-elevation hummocks of freshwater marshes . Along subalpine streams and other wetlands above 8,500 feet (2,600 m) in Arizona, redosier dogwood was locally common in boreal riparian scrub communities dominated by willows and was particularly important at downstream locations where conditions approached cold temperate . Redosier dogwood was listed among the principal woody species together with Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), and Scouler willow (Salix scouleriana) in the riparian community type at the Curlew National Grasslands in Idaho . In Wisconsin, redosier dogwood presence values were greater in southern shrub carr vegetation than in any other community . When 76 shrub carr stands were evaluated in 13 counties in southeastern Wisconsin, redosier dogwood occurred in 88% of stands; shrub carr stands dominated by redosier dogwood averaged 7.9 feet (2.4 m) tall . In Tompkins County, New York, redosier dogwood sometimes dominated swamp shrub vegetation surrounding herbaceous marshes .
Grasslands: In many parts of its range, redosier dogwood frequently establishes in herbaceous communities when they experience at least a short period without disturbance. In the Kamloops Forest Region of British Columbia, redosier dogwood occurred at wet sites within the bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata) zone . In southeastern Wisconsin, redosier dogwood was an "early invader" of sedge (Carex spp.) tussock meadows. The shrub-dominated stage of succession initiated by establishment of redosier dogwood was slowed or restricted by grazing . In a survey of prairies, savannas, and wetlands in natural areas in northeastern Illinois, frequency of redosier dogwood was greatest in a hydric, poorly drained, marsh community dominated by sedges and cattails with a water table at or near the soil surface. Redosier dogwood was also found in calcareous fens, calcareous seeps, and sedge meadows considered hydric to wet-mesic with poor to imperfect drainage .
|Table 1. Location and type of plant communities in which redosier dogwood was a dominant species|
|Blue spruce (Picea pungens)/redosier dogwood habitat type||At sites with water sources on the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico , and along streams and wet draws in northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, and southern Colorado |
|Blue spruce/Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia)-redosier dogwood/elk sedge (Carex geyeri) habitat type||Along streams and in valley bottoms of the White River National Forest in Colorado [111,322]|
Sitka spruce/redosier dogwood/American skunkcabbage (Lysichiton americanus) seasonally flooded riparian type
|Along large coastal rivers in northwestern Oregon |
|Engelmann spruce/redosier dogwood cold riparian forest type||Blue Mountain region of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon  and in eastern Washington |
White spruce/redosier dogwood/wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis) vegetation association
|In the boreal mixedwoods ecoregion in Alberta  and on recent alluvium at low-elevation, wet, rich sites in west-central Alberta |
Black spruce/prickly rose (Rosa acicularis)-swamp red currant (Ribes triste)-redosier dogwood/bigleaf aster (Eurybia macrophylla)-red baneberry (Actaea rubra) forest type
|Great Lakes region |
|Spruce/redosier dogwood riparian type||Eastern Idaho, western Wyoming , and Montana |
|Ponderosa pine/redosier dogwood riparian community type||Montana|
|Douglas-fir/redosier dogwood riparian community type||Montana |
|Western hemlock-western redcedar/redosier dogwood/queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora) forest||Within the eastern region of the Cascade Mountains in Washington |
|Conifer/redosier dogwood riparian community type||In the Humboldt and Toiyabe National Forests in Nevada and eastern California  and in southern Idaho and Utah |
|Boxelder (Acer negundo)/redosier dogwood riparian type||Southern Idaho and Utah |
|Gray alder/redosier dogwood riparian type||Nevada , southern Idaho, and Utah |
|Water birch/redosier dogwood riparian community type||Eastern California , Nevada , Idaho [119,218], Wyoming , and Utah |
|Black ash-mixed hardwood-conifer/redosier dogwood/sedge community type||Manitoba, North Dakota, Minnesota , Michigan, Illinois, and Ontario |
|Rocky Mountain juniper/redosier dogwood riparian community type||Montana |
|Narrowleaf cottonwood-(blue spruce)/thinleaf alder (Alnus incana subsp. tenuifolia)-redosier dogwood riparian vegetation association||Within the montane forest zone in western Colorado (average cover of redosier dogwood: 24.8%) |
|Narrowleaf cottonwood/redosier dogwood riparian community type||Eastern California , Nevada , eastern Idaho, western Wyoming , Montana , southern Idaho, and Utah |
|Narrowleaf cottonwood/thinleaf alder-redosier dogwood community type||In narrow valleys on well-drained sandy to fine loam soils in north-central New Mexico|
|Black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa)-Engelmann spruce/mountain alder (Alnus viridis subsp. crispa)-redosier dogwood type||Along Cherry Creek on sandy skeletal soils with spring flooding in the Winema National Forest in Oregon |
|Black cottonwood/redosier dogwood/taperfruit shortscale sedge |
(Carex leptopoda) seasonally flooded riparian type
|Along large coastal rivers in northwestern Oregon |
|Black cottonwood/redosier dogwood type||Eastern Washington  and Montana |
|Black cottonwood/gray alder-redosier dogwood warm riparian forest type||Blue Mountain region of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon , and eastern Washington |
|Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera)/redosier dogwood riparian community type||Wyoming |
|Balsam poplar/thinleaf alder/redosier dogwood/meadow horsetail (Equisetum pratense) riparian community type||A rare or declining boreal forest type in Alberta (Allen 2001 cited in )|
|Eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides)/redosier dogwood type||Montana |
|Quaking aspen/redosier dogwood riparian community type||Eastern Washington , the Humboldt and Toiyabe National Forests of Nevada and eastern California , and Montana |
|Quaking aspen/gray alder-redosier dogwood warm riparian forest||Blue Mountain region of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon |
|Cottonwood/redosier dogwood riparian community type||The Humboldt and Toiyabe National Forests of Nevada and eastern California |
|Red alder (Alnus rubra)/redosier dogwood warm riparian shrubland||Blue Mountain region of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon |
|Gray alder-redosier dogwood thicket type||In narrow, low-elevation canyons along the Salmon River and its tributaries in Idaho , along streams or rivers with seasonal fluvial scouring and deposition in southwestern Idaho , and in New Mexico |
|Gray alder/redosier dogwood/mesic forb warm riparian shrubland||Blue Mountain region of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon |
|Water birch-redosier dogwood community type||Black Hills of Wyoming  and along montane streams in northern New Mexico |
|Dewystem willow (Salix irrorata)-redosier dogwood community type||Along montane streams in the Zuni Mountains of west-central New Mexico |
|Willow-redosier dogwood riparian community type||Eastern Sierra Nevada , bog regions of northern Lower Michigan  and Wisconsin |
|Canada yew (Taxus canadensis)-highbush cranberry (Viburnum edule)-redosier dogwood-green alder (Alnus viridis)-devilsclub (Oplopanax horridus) shrubland||Ontario and Michigan, but rare |
|Redosier dogwood-common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus) riparian type||Eastern Washington |
|Redosier dogwood-willow riparian community type||In the Humboldt and Toiyabe National Forests of eastern California and Nevada  and in Manitoba, North Dakota, Minnesota, and Iowa |
|Redosier dogwood riparian shrubland type||In Blue Mountain region of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon , eastern California , Nevada , New Mexico , and Montana (more common in western than eastern part of the state) |
|Redosier dogwood/lady fern (Athyrium filix-femina) warm riparian shrubland type||Blue Mountain region of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon , and eastern Washington |
|Redosier dogwood/horsetail (Equisetum spp.) riparian type||Eastern Washington |
|Redosier dogwood/sweetscented bedstraw (Galium triflorum) riparian community type||Eastern Idaho and western Wyoming  and Greys River drainage in Wyoming |
|Redosier dogwood/American skunkcabbage perennially saturated montane shrub swamp type||Northwestern Oregon |
|Redosier dogwood/common cowparsnip (Heracleum lanatum) habitat type||Eastern Idaho, western Wyoming , southern Idaho, and Utah |
|Redosier dogwood/brook saxifrage (Saxifraga arguta) warm riparian shrubland type||Blue Mountain region of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon |
|Redosier dogwood/mesic forb riparian type||Eastern Washington |
|Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea)/redosier dogwood floodplain habitat type||Along Richelieu River in Quebec |
See the Fire Regime Table for a list of plant communities in which redosier dogwood may occur and information on the FIRE REGIMES associated with those communities.
No one has provided updates yet.