Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
More info for the term: swamp
Purple loosestrife shoots may be grazed by white-tailed deer [2,102], muskrat [2,129], and rabbits [2,113], but extent of mammal herbivory is sometimes difficult to determine due to rapid regrowth of multiple new stems from browse points. In a mixed stand of purple loosestrife and cattail, foraging muskrats were observed to occasionally cut stems of purple loosestrife but preferentially fed on roots and overwintering shoots of cattail .
While purple loosestrife invasion is often reported as detrimental to wetland-bird habitat, some evidence indicates little to no harmful effect. American coot, pied-billed grebe, black-crowned night heron, American goldfinch and gray catbird have all been observed nesting in purple loosestrife stands [2,102]. Red-winged blackbirds preferentially nest in purple loosestrife over cattails [101,142]. American goldfinch construct nests in purple loosestrife, utilizing the relatively stable stalks to attach nests above the ground or water surface . Pied-billed grebes use dead purple loosestrife stems as nest substrate in habitat with standing and emergent vegetation . In a 2-year survey of birds in wetlands surrounding Lake Huron's Saginaw Bay in eastern Lower Michigan, swamp sparrow nests were most abundant in areas of purple loosestrife dominance .
Although purple loosestrife, with its tiny seeds, has been assumed to provide little to no food for birds , there are several reports of ducks and red-winged blackbirds consuming purple loosestrife seeds , and a report of damage to experimental seedling plots in England caused by ring-necked pheasants and pigeons .
- 101. Rawinski, Thomas J.; Malecki, Richard A. 1984. Ecological relationships among purple loosestrife, cattail and wildlife at the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. New York Fish and Game Journal. 31(1): 81-87. 
- 102. Rawinski, Thomas James. 1982. The ecology and management of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) in central New York. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. 88 p. Thesis. 
- 113. Shamsi, S. R. A.; Whitehead, F. 1977. Comparative eco-physiology of Epilobium hirsutum L. and Lythrum salicaria L. IV. Effects of temperature and inter-specific competition and concluding discussion. Journal of Ecology. 65: 71-84. 
- 129. Thompson, Daniel Q.; Stuckey, Ronald L.; Thompson, Edith B. 1987. Spread, impact, and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American wetlands. Fish and Wildlife Research 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 55 p. 
- 142. Whitt, Michael B.; Prince, Harold H.; Cox, Robert R., Jr. 1999. Avian use of purple loosestrife dominated habitat relative to other vegetation types in a Lake Huron wetland complex. The Wilson Bulletin. 111(11): 105-114. 
- 2. Anderson, Mark G. 1995. Interactions between Lythrum salicaria and native organisms: a critical review. Environmental Management. 19(2): 225-231. 
- 68. Kiviat, Erik. 1996. American goldfinch nests in purple loosestrife. The Wilson Bulletin. 108(1): 182-186. 
- 77. Lor, Socheata Krystyne. 2000. Population status and breeding ecology of marsh birds in western New York. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, Department of Natural Resources. 126 p. Thesis. 
No one has provided updates yet.