More info for the terms: phase, presence
Throughout its global distribution purple loosestrife is strongly linked with temperate climate and moist or saturated soils . Unshaded, newly-exposed, moist soil appears most favorable for seedling establishment. Riverine habitats subjected to periodic but infrequent scouring, or lacustrine habitats subject to periodic water level reduction such as drought-exposed lakeshore or seasonal impoundment drawdown are good examples of habitats at risk of invasion. Once purple loosestrife seedlings become established, adults are quite flood tolerant . Moisture is the most critical factor for growth and reproduction, but well-established plants can persist at dry sites for many years . Keddy and Ellis  examined purple loosestrife seedling recruitment along a water level gradient, simulating conditions ranging from water levels 2 inches (5 cm) below the soil surface to standing water up to 4 inches (10 cm) above the soil surface. They found there was no significant (p = 0.44) effect of water depth on germination and early establishment of seedlings, indicating a broad tolerance for water level in the recruitment phase of purple loosestrife life history. Stream corridors with steep elevational gradients may be less susceptible to colonization by purple loosestrife due to gravitational constraints on seed dispersal .
Northern limits of purple loosestrife distribution may be strongly influenced by low growing season temperature. Under controlled conditions, growth was severely restricted at 46.4 degrees Fahrenheit (8 Â°C) compared with more "characteristic" growth at 64.4 degrees Fahrenheit (18Â°C) .
Purple loosestrife is found on both calcareous and acidic soils [111,113,129] and tolerates low-nutrient soils [111,117,141]. Typically found in open areas, purple loosestrife will tolerate some shade, but growth, reproduction and survival may be substantially reduced under shaded conditions [110,118].
Several characteristics of wetland or riparian habitats have been identified that may be predictive of invasibility by purple loosestrife. Assuming dispersal is largely via floating propagules, isolated wetland basins may be less susceptible to purple loosestrife colonization than areas with interconnected waterways. Additionally, narrow streams with steep gradients are probably less susceptible, because they are frequently scoured and contain fewer areas of slack water, while slower, broader flows are more likely to contain habitat suitable for colonization. Riparian areas that are mostly shaded are also less susceptible because purple loosestrife seedlings require relatively high light levels. Finally, the presence of one or more commonly associated taxa, such as cattails (Typha spp.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), sedges (Carex) spp., and rushes (Juncus spp.) may indicate a habitat that is highly susceptible to invasion by purple loosestrife .
- 110. Shamsi, S. R. A. 1976. Some effects of density and fertilizer on the growth and competition of Epilobium hirsutum and Lythrum salicaria. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 8(2): 213-220. 
- 111. Shamsi, S. R. A.; Whitehead, F. H. 1974. Comparative eco-physiology of Epilobium hirsutum L. and Lythrum salicaria L. I. General biology, distribution and germination. Journal of Ecology. 62(79): 272-290. 
- 113. Shamsi, S. R. A.; Whitehead, F. 1977. Comparative eco-physiology of Epilobium hirsutum L. and Lythrum salicaria L. IV. Effects of temperature and inter-specific competition and concluding discussion. Journal of Ecology. 65: 71-84. 
- 117. Shipley, Bill; Peters, Robert H. 1990. A test of the Tilman model of plant strategies: relative growth rate and biomass partitioning. The American Naturalist. 136(2): 139-153. 
- 118. Skinner, Luke C.; Rendall, William J.; Fuge, Ellen L. 1994. Minnesota's purple loosestrife program: history, findings, and management recommendations. Special Publication 145. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Ecological Services Section. 27 p. 
- 128. Thompson, Daniel Q. 1989. Control of purple loosestrife. Fish and Wildlife Leaflet 13.4.11. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 6 p. 
- 129. Thompson, Daniel Q.; Stuckey, Ronald L.; Thompson, Edith B. 1987. Spread, impact, and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American wetlands. Fish and Wildlife Research 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 55 p. 
- 141. Whitehead, F. H. 1971. Comparative autecology as a guide to plant distribution. In: Duffey, E. O.; Watt, A. S., eds. The scientific management of animal and plant communities for conservation: Proceedings of the 11th symposium of the British Ecological Society; [Date unknown]; [Location unknown]. Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific: 167-176. 
- 21. Blossey, Bernd; Schroeder, Dieter. 1995. Host specificity of three potential biological weed control agents attacking flowers and seeds of Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife). Biological Control. 5: 47-53. 
- 64. Keddy, Paul A.; Ellis, Timothy H. 1985. Seedling recruitment of 11 wetland plant species along a water level gradient: shared or distinct responses? Canadian Journal of Botany. 63(10): 1876-1879. 
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