More info for the terms: eruption, presence, succession
Broadleaf lupine was a common colonizing species on many of the primary successional habitats after the eruption of Mount St. Helens [18,21,28,40,77]. On debris avalanche sites at Mount St. Helens, broadleaf lupine altered local soil moisture conditions by shading, and altered soil nutrient status by nitrogen fixation .
There was an abundance of broadleaf lupine on a pioneer community dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra) and Sitka willow (Salix sitchensis) on Bald Mountain, Vancouver Island, British Columbia . In Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, broadleaf lupine is associated with young and developing communities but is most characteristic of the "best developed" and "most mature" meadow communities . Broadleaf lupine is a dominant species in both early seral and old-growth stands of Olympic National Forest .
The rapid development of an extensive lateral root system should allow broadleaf lupine to exploit resources effectively and thus succeed in competing for water, light, and space later in succession. The presence of broadleaf lupine plants in canopy gaps of old-growth forests of coast Douglas-fir, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) confirms its ability to succeed in a strongly competitive environment .
- 18. Braatne, J. H.; Bliss, L. C. 1999. Comparative physiological ecology of lupines colonizing early successional habitats on Mount St. Helens. Ecology. 80(3): 891-907. 
- 21. Chapin, David M. 1995. Physiological and morphological attributes of two colonizing plant species on Mount St. Helens. The American Midland Naturalist. 133(1): 76-87. 
- 23. Cowan, Ian McTaggart. 1945. The ecological relationships of the food of the Columbian black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson), in the coast forest region of southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ecological Monographs. 15(2): 110-139. 
- 24. Dale, Virginia H. 1989. Wind dispersed seeds and plant recovery on the Mount St. Helens debris avalanche. Canadian Journal of Botany. 67: 1434-1441. 
- 28. del Moral, Roger; Wood, David M. 1993. Early primary succession on the volcano Mount St. Helens. Journal of Vegetation Science. 4(2): 223-234. 
- 3. Antos, Joseph A.; Halpern, Charles B. 1997. Root system differences among species: implications for early successional changes in forests of western Oregon. The American Midland Naturalist. 138(1): 97-108. 
- 40. Halvorson, Jonathan J.; Franz, Eldon H.; Smith, Jeffrey L.; Black, R. Alan. 1992. Nitrogenase activity, nitrogen fixation, and nitrogen inputs by lupines at Mount St. Helens. Ecology. 73(1): 87-98. 
- 43. Henderson, Jan A.; Peter, David H.; Lesher, Robin D.; Shaw, David C. 1989. Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP 001-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 502 p. 
- 44. Henderson, Jan Alan. 1974. Composition, distribution, and succession of subalpine meadows in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 150 p. Dissertation. 
- 77. Titus, Jonathan H.; Moore, Scott; Arnot, Mildred; Titus, Priscilla J. 1998. Inventory of the vascular flora of the blast zone, Mount St. Helens, Washington. Madrono. 45(2): 146-161.