The oldest wild cardinal banded by researchers lived at least 15 years and 9 months. Annual survival rates for adult northern cardinals have been estimated at 60 to 65%. (Halkin and Linville, 1999)
This article is unpublished.
Appears under "Life Expectancy"
©1995-2008, The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors
Animal Diversity Web
Dewey, T., J. Crane and K. Kirschbaum. 2001. "Cardinalis cardinalis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed August 30, 2009 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cardinalis_cardinalis.html.
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