hardwoods . In the Northeast white ash occurs on middle mesophytic
slopes, and it is reduced or lacking on dry, cold ridges and
mountaintops. White ash occurs on slightly elevated ridges in the
floodplains of major streams in the Coastal Plain and on slopes along
major streams in the Central States .
Soil: White ash has a strong affinity for soils high in nitrogen and
Climate: Climate varies widely within white ash's range. The
frost-free period ranges from 90 to 270 days. Annual precipitation
ranges from 30 to 60 inches (76-152 cm) per year. Snow depths vary from
0 to more than 100 inches (254 cm) .
Elevation: White ash grows from near sea level on the Coastal Plain to
3,450 feet (1,050 m) in the Cumberland Mountains .
Associates: White ash's primary associates are eastern white pine
(Pinus strobus), northern red oak (Quercus rubra), white oak (Q. alba),
sugar maple (Acer saccharum), red maple (A. rubrum), yellow birch
(Betula alleghaniensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black
cherry (Prunus serotina), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and yellow
poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) .
Understory associates are downy serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea),
pawpaw (Asimina triloba), American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana),
flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), and eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya
- 17. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. 
- 27. Schlesinger, Richard C. 1990. Fraxinus americana L. white ash. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 333-338. 
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