Of the 8 subspecies of band-tailed pigeon, only 2 native subspecies are recognized north of Mexico [1,15,43]. They are the Pacific band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) and the interior band-tailed pigeon (P. f. fasciata). They are mutually exclusive races, breeding in areas that do not overlap [15,77]. Bird Web provides a distributional map of band-tailed pigeon, as well as photos.
The breeding range of the Pacific band-tailed pigeon occurs from southwestern British Columbia; south along the western side of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Range to Baja California Norte, Mexico [1,11,19,46,64,85], and extreme western Nevada [19,52]. Pacific band-tailed pigeons may be either residents or migrants . Pacific band-tailed pigeons in the northern portion of their range are strongly migratory , although resident populations have been reported in Seattle, Washington  and Portland, Oregon . Wintering grounds are from San Francisco, California [53,64,85], south to Ensenada, Baja California Norte [15,64]. Fall migration routes to wintering grounds follow coastal mountain ranges and 2 migration corridors southward [11,84,85]. One route follows the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, and the 2nd route is along the Coast Ranges. Both routes converge in the Transverse Range in Ventura County, California, and continue to southern California and Baja California Norte [84,85].
The breeding range of the interior band-tailed pigeon occurs east of the Sierra Nevada  in the Rocky Mountains of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah [1,15,32,33,43]. Some populations occur in southern Nevada, Wyoming, and western Texas . Wintering grounds extend from the Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuahua south along the crest of the Sierra Madre Occidental to Michoacan, Mexico [15,46]. Fall migration routes to wintering grounds follow 2 major routes. One route is from south central Colorado southwest across New Mexico to extreme southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona. The 2nd route is from central and western Colorado to east-central Arizona, where a route from Utah converges, then south along the New Mexico and Arizona boundary. Northward migration probably takes place along the same routes .
The following lists are speculative and are based on the habitat characteristics and species composition of communities band-tailed pigeons are known to occupy. There is not conclusive evidence that band-tailed pigeons occur in all the habitat types listed, and some community types, especially those used rarely, may have been omitted. See Preferred Habitat for more detail.
- 1. American Ornithologists' Union. 1957. Checklist of North American birds. 5th ed. Baltimore, MD: The Lord Baltimore Press, Inc. 691 p. 
- 15. Braun, Clait E.; Brown, David E.; Peterson, Jordan C.; Zapatka, Thomas P. 1975. Results of the Four Corners cooperative band-tailed pigeon investigation: a cooperative research effort conducted by the states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Resource Publication 126. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 20 p. 
- 19. DeGraaf, Richard M.; Scott, Virgil E.; Hamre, R. H.; Ernst, Liz; Anderson, Stanley H. 1991. Forest and rangeland birds of the United States: Natural history and habitat use. Agric. Handb. 688. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 625 p. 
- 32. Gutierrez, R. J.; Braun, Clait E.; Zapatka, Thomas P. 1975. Reproductive biology of the band-tailed pigeon in Colorado and New Mexico. The Auk. 92(4): 665-677. 
- 43. Jarvis, Robert L.; Passmore, Michael F. 1992. Ecology of band-tailed pigeons in Oregon. Biological Report 6. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 38 p. 
- 46. Keppie, Daniel M.; Braun, Clait E. 2000. Band-tailed pigeon--Columba fasciata. In: Poole, A.; Stettenheim, P.; Gill, F., eds. Birds of North America. No. 530. Philadelphia, PA: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: The American Ornithologists' Union: 1-28. 
- 52. Leonard, Jerome Patrick. 1998. Nesting and foraging ecology of band-tailed pigeons in western Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 95 p. Dissertation. 
- 53. MacGregor, Wallace G.; Smith, Walton M. 1955. Nesting and reproduction of the band-tailed pigeon in California. California Fish and Game. 41(4): 315-326. 
- 64. Neff, Johnson A. 1947. Habits, food, and economic status of the band-tailed pigeon. North American Fauna 58. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 76 p. 
- 77. Schroeder, Michael A.; Braun, Clait E. 1993. Movement and philopatry of band-tailed pigeons captured in Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management. 57(1): 103-112. 
- 84. Silovsky, Gene Donald. 1969. Distribution and mortality of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 70 p. Thesis. 
- 85. Smith, Walton A. 1968. The band-tailed pigeon in California. California Fish and Game. 54(1): 4-16. 
- 11. Blackmon, Thomas W. 1976. Distribution and relative densities of the band-tailed pigeon (Columba fasciata monilas) in California. Administrative Report No. 76-2; Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Project W-47-R. [Sacramento, CA]: California Department of Fish and Game, Wildlife Management Branch. 35 p. 
- 33. Gutierrez, Ralph J. 1973. Band-tailed pigeon investigations: Breeding and nesting chronology studies. In: Migratory bird investigations. Job final report: Project No. W-88-R-18; April 1, 1969 through March 31, 1973. [Denver, CO]: Colorado Division of Wildlife: 153-177. 
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