White ash flower buds break dormancy from April to May, with the
vegetative buds breaking immediately after the flowers [27,30]. The
fruit ripens from August to October , and seeds are dispersed from
August to November .
- 2. Bjorkbom, J. C. 1979. Seed production and advance regeneration in Allegheny hardwood forests. Res. Pap. NE-435. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 10 p. 
- 24. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. 
- 27. Schlesinger, Richard C. 1990. Fraxinus americana L. white ash. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 333-338. 
- 30. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. 
No one has provided updates yet.