The insect order mecoptera includes the scorpionflies and hangingflies. They are found throughout most of the world. They are not found on many islands, for instance, no mecoptera are known to be in Madagascar. The scorpionfly gets its name from its enlarged cercus, which curves upward at the end of its tail. This characteristic mostly applies to the family Panorpidae, but has determined the common name of all the families. Despite the association with scorpions, the mecoptera are all quite harmless and do not sting. The hangingfly gets its name from its mating ritual. The female hangs upside down, while the male holds her with his tarsi. The mecoptera undergo complete metamorphosis. The eggs are oviposited in leaf litter or soil. The larvae resemble either caterpillars or grubs. The pupal stage includes folded wings and, depending on the family, can range from ten to forty days. The adults have an eleven-segmented abdomen. Adult longevity can range from less than a month to five months depending on the family.