The flowers are cross-pollinated by such insects as honeybees, other bees, beetles, and flies. Aside from seeking nectar and pollen from the flowers, very few insects feed on Tree-of-Heaven (at least in North America). The caterpillars of two moths, Atteva punctella (Ailanthus Webworm) and Samia cynthia (Ailanthus Silkworm), feed on the foliage of this tree. Some birds, like the Pine Grosbeak and White-Winged Crossbill, eat the seeds. There are scattered reports of limited browsing by deer on the foliage, and cattle sometimes browse on seedlings.