The showy flowers attract small bees and various flies. Charles Robertson observed Ceratina spp. (Little Carpenter bees) visiting the flowers, although he did not consider them to be effective at pollination. Herman Müller observed Andrenid bees pollinating the flowers of Cypripedium calceolus (a very similar orchid in Eurasia). He also observed various flies visiting the flowers, but they were ineffective at pollination. Müller claimed that the flowers occasionally produce small amounts of nectar as a reward, but other authorities dispute this. White-Tailed Deer readily consume the foliage of this and other orchids, and local populations may require a deer-resistant fence for protection where these animals are abundant.
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