The nectar of the flowers attracts bumblebees and other long-tongued bees, which are the principle pollinators. Ants are also attracted to the nectar, but they are not effective pollinators. The foliage and other parts of the plant are consumed by the larvae of Danaus plexippes (Monarch Butterfly) and the usual assortment of milkweed insects (see Insect Table). Mammalian herbivores shun this plant because the white latex of the leaves is toxic and provides the foliage with a bitter taste. The white latex also clogs up the mouthparts of insects, reducing the number of species that can feed on this plant. Photographic Location
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