Distribution and Habitat
Rana pipiens is a wide-ranging species. It can be found across a broad swath of territory from the Hudson Bay south to northern Virginia, and to the west as far as southern British Columbia and eastern Washington and Oregon. In the west its range extends south through Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. It exists in scattered populations in some areas of California and Nevada, and has been introduced in other areas of California. In the western U.S. its range is now greatly fragmented and lacks confirmation in recent years. (Stebbins 2003).
R. pipiens lives in a wide variety of habitats: grassland, brushland, and forest. It is the most cold-adapted of all the leopard frogs, and can be found up to an elevation of about 11,000 feet (Stebbins 2003). It can also be found in agricultural lands and in developed areas such as golf courses (Hayes et al. 2002). It prefers to live where there is a permanent body of standing or slowly flowing water, and among the aquatic vegetation of such places (Stebbins 2003).
- Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
- Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
- Fellers, G. J., Green, D. E., and Longcore, J. E. (2001). ''Oral chytridiomycosis in the Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog (Rana muscosa).'' Copeia, 2001(4), 945-953.
- Brodkin, M., Vatcnick, I., Simon, M., Hollyann, H., Butler-Holston, K., and Leonard, M. (2003). ''Effects of acid stress in adult Rana pipiens.'' Journal of Experimental Zoology, 298A(1), 16-22.
- Gibbs, J. P. (2000). ''Wetland loss and biodiversity conservation.'' Conservation Biology, 14(1), 314-317.
- Glennemeier, K. A. and Denver, R. J. (2001). ''Sublethal effects of chronic exposure to an organochlorine compound on northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles.'' Environmental Toxicology, 16(4), 287-297.
- Hayes, T., Haston, K., Tsui, M., Hoang, A., Haeffele, C., and Vonk, A. (2002). ''The feminization of male frogs in the wild.'' Nature, 419, 895-896.
- Hecnar, S. J. (1995). "Acute and chronic toxicity of ammonium nitrate fertilizer to amphibians from southern Ontario." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 14(12), 2131-2137.
- Lannoo, M. J., Lang, K., Waltz, T., and Phillips, G. S. (1994). "An altered amphibian assemblage: Dickinson County, Iowa, 70 years after Frank Blanchard's survey." American Midland Naturalist, 131(2), 311-319.
- Linck, M. (2000). ''Reduction in road mortality in a northern leopard frog population.'' Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science, 107(3-4), 209-211.
- Peterson, G., Johnson, L. B., Axler, R. P., and Diamond, S. A. (2002). ''Assessment of the risk of solar ultraviolet radiation to amphibians. II. In situ characterization of exposure in amphibian habitats.'' Environmental Science and Technology, 36(13), 2859-2865.
- Schothoeffer, A. M., and Koehler, A. V., Meteyer, C. U., Cole, R. A. (2003). ''Influence of Ribeiroia ondatrae (Trematoda: Digenea) infection on limb development and survival of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): Effects of host stage and parasite-exposure level.'' Canadian Journal of Zoology, 81(7), 1144-1153.