Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Little is known about the biology of this species, however it is likely to be similar to that of L. aurea (Gillespie et al. 1995). Males call from Aug. to Apr. (Hero et al. 1991). The species breeds in permanent ponds or swamps, usually with extensive areas of sedges and rushes from which adults call (Gillespie et al. 1995). About 1698 eggs are laid in a loose clump (Hero et al. 1991, Hero & Warrell unpublished). Tadpoles are free swimming and develop over summer and autumn (Gillespie et al. 1995). Metamorphosis takes place between late summer and autumn, although tadpoles may overwinter and metamorphose the following season (Gillespie et al. 1995). Feeding
Adults are opportunistic predators, preying on other frogs and are also known to be cannibalistic (Hero et al. 1991; Gillespie et al. 1995).Invasive species
Litoria raniformis is usually found in association with dams, ponds and marshes, either amongst sedges and other semi-aquatic vegetation, or sheltering under logs and rocks (Gillespie et al. 1995). The species appears to be associated with permanent waterbodies though it is unclear whether, like L. aurea, the species also utilises ephemeral pools (Mahony 1999). The species occurs both in woodland and areas of improved pasture (Gillespie et al. 1995).
- Brook, A.J. (1979). Atlas of Frogs of Tasmania. Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne.
- Ehmann, H. and White, A. (1997). ''23. Southern Bell Frog, Litoria raniformis.'' Threatened Frogs of New South Wales: Habitats, Status and Conservation. H. Ehmann, eds., Frog and Tadpole Study Group of NSW, Sydney South, Australia, 194-200.
- Gillespie, G. and Hero, J.-M. (1999). ''Potential impact of introduced fish and fish translocations on Australian amphibians.'' Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. A. Campbell, eds., Environment Australia, Canberra, 131â"144.
- Gillespie, G.R., Osborne, W.S. and Mc Elhinney, N.A. (1995). The Conservation Status of Frogs in the Australian Alps: A Review. A Report to the Australian Alps Liaison Committee, Canberra.
- Goldingay, R., and Lewis, B. (1999). ''Development of a conservation strategy for the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea in the Illawarra region of New South Wales.'' Australian Zoologist, 31, 376-387.
- Hero, J.-M., Littlejohn, M., and Marantelli, G. (1991). Frogwatch Field Guide to Victorian Frogs. Department of Conservation and Environment, Victoria.
- Littlejohn, M.J. (1963). ''Frogs of the Melbourne area.'' Victorian Naturalist, 79, 296-304.
- Littlejohn, M.J. (1982). ''Amphibians of Victoria.'' Victorian Yearbook, 85, 1-11.
- Mahony, M. (1999). ''Review of the declines and disappearances within the bell frog species group (Litoria aurea species group) in Australia.'' Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. A. Campbell, eds., Environment Australia, Canberra, 81-93.
- Martin, A.A. and Tyler, M.J. (1978). ''The Introduction into Western Australia of the frog Limnodynastes tasmaniensis Gunther.'' Australian Zoologist, 19(3), 321-325.
- Morgan, L. A., and Buttemer, W. A. (1996). ''Predation by the non-native fish Gambusia holbrooki on small Litoria aurea and L. dentata tadpoles.'' Australian Zoologist, 30(2), 143-149.
- Osborne, W. S., Littlejohn, M. J., and Thomson, S. A. (1996). ''Former distribution and apparent disappearance of the Litoria aurea complex.'' Australian Zoologist, 30(2), 190-198.
- Tyler, M.J. (1997). The Action Plan for Australian Frogs. Wildlife Australia, Canberra, ACT.
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