An aquatic, cave-dwelling salamander. This weird-looking animal is gilled throughout life, has extremely thin limbs, and is virtually pigmentless. The eyes are reduced and non-functional. A tail fin is present. Adults are 9-13.5 cm total length, with 12 costal grooves. Juveniles have proportionally larger eyes. See Petranka (1998) for references.
Until recently E. rathbuni and E. robusta were placed in the genus Typhlomolge. Although they are extreme in their specializations for living in underground aquatic systems, these two species are closely related to other species of Eurycea from Texas and the eastern United States (Chippindale 1995; Petranka 1998).
- Belcher, D. L. (1988). "Courtship behavior and spermatophore deposition by the subterranean salamander, Typhlomolge rathbuni (Caudata, Plethodontidae)." Southwestern Naturalist, 33, 124-126.
- Chippindale, P. T. (1995). Evolution, phylogeny, biogeography, and taxonomy of Central Texas spring and cave salamanders, Eurycea and Typhlomolge (Plethodontidae: Hemidactyliini. Ph.D Dissertation, University of Texas.
- Longley, G. (1978). ''Status of Typhlomolge (= Eurycea) rathbuni, the Texas Blind Salamander.'' Endangered Species Report 2. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, NM, 2:1-45.
- Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.