Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Habitat fragmentation and destruction are rapidly affecting the flatwoods salamander. The longleaf pine-wiregrass communities that once dominated the Coastal Plain from North Carolina to east Texas are rapidly being destroyed for slash pine silviculture practices. It is estimated that the longleaf pine forests once comprised 60.6% of the upland landscape prior to early settlement, yet by 1990 it had dropped to 1.4% of the landscape (Ware et al. 1993). Despite earlier controversy about whether the flatwoods salamander preferred the slash pine habitat, Means et al. (1996) demonstrated that adult members of the species are primarily inhabitants of the longleaf pine-wiregrass flatwoods, and that the slash pine flatwoods only form a small portion of the adult habitat.
- Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
- Anderson, J. D., and Williamson, G. K. (1976). ''Terrestrial mode of reproduction in Ambystoma cingulatum.'' Herpetologica, 32, 214-221.
- Means, D. B., Palis, J. G., and Baggett, M. (1996). ''Effects of slash pine silviculture on a Florida population of Flatwoods Salamander.'' Conservation Biology, 10(2), 426-437.
- Palis, J.G. (1995). ''Larval growth, development, and metamorphosis of Ambystoma cingulatum on the Gulf Coastal Plain of Florida.'' The Florida Scientist, 58(44), 352-358.
- Palis, J.G. (1996). ''Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum Cope). Element stewardship abstract.'' Natural Areas Resource Journal, 16, 49-54.
- Ware, S.C., Frost, C. and Doerr, P.D. (1993). ''Southern mixed hardwood forest: the former longleaf pine forest.'' Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States. W.H.Martin, S.G. Boyce, and A.C. Echternacht, eds., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 447-493.
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