Usually found along the coasts and estuaries at a temperature range of 8° to 24°C (Ref. 4944). Often associated with Zostera or other vegetation (Ref. 6733). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Spawns in summer (Ref. 35388).
- Dawson, C.E. 1986 Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6733) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=6733&speccode=67