Abundant in seagrass beds along coasts. Northern populations move offshore during colder months (Ref. 26938). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942