Indo-Pacific: Tanzania and South Africa to Hawaii and Tahiti, north to Japan, south to New Caledonia. Reported from the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819). This name is used for at least four distinct species (Ref. 30915). International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
- Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall 1999 Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=30915&speccode=13100