Description: (based on 51 specimens): Adult height: 5.5-18.5cm. Rings: 11 + 36 (34-39). Snout length: 2.6 (2.2-3.2) in head length. Dorsal fin rays: 18-19 (16-20) covering 2+1 rings. Pectoral fin rays: 15-16 (14-18). Coronet: variable, low, triangular wedge, or ridge-like or raised with sharp edges, or with relatively sharp spines. Spines: variable from none, to well-developed with blunt or sharp tips. Other distinctive characters: usually first, third, fifth, seventh and eleventh trunk rings enlarged (in most other species it is the first, fourth, seventh and eleventh); snout usually less than half head length; deep-bodied; cheek spine single or double. Color pattern: base color variable ash grey, orange, brown, yellow, red or black; brown individuals tend to be paler on ventral side; often with a characteristic pattern of white lines following contour of neck; tiny white dots on tail; may have darker or paler saddles across dorsal surface often in line with the more enlarged body rings.
- Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall 1999 Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=30915&speccode=13100