Southwest Pacific: Australia and New Zealand. Vulnerable (Ref. 30915). Occurrence in Thailand and the Philippines (Ref. 43081) needs verification. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
- Paulin, C. and C. Roberts 1992 The rockpool fishes of New Zealand (Te ika aaria o Aotearoa). Museum of New Zealand (Te Papa Tongarewa). 177 p. (Ref. 9003) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9003&speccode=47003