Occurs usually over sandy bottoms in shallow coastal waters, being relatively abundant in the surf zone. During summer months the fish move to their nursery and feeding grounds in river estuaries.
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942