Omsk hemorrhagic fever
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|Omsk hemorrhagic fever|
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Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever is caused by the Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (OHFV), a member of the Flavivirus family. The virus was discovered by Mikhail Chumakov and his colleagues between 1945 and 1947 in Omsk, Russia. The infection could be found in western Siberia, in places including Omsk, Novosibirsk, Kurgan, and Tyumen. The virus survives in water and is transferred to humans via contaminated water or an infected tick.
There are a number of symptoms of the virus. In the first 1–8 days the first phase begins. The symptoms in this phase are:
- pain in the lower and upper extremities and severe prostration
- a rash on the soft palate
- swollen glands in the neck
- appearance of blood in the eyes (conjunctiva suffusion)
- gastrointestinal symptoms (symptoms relating to the stomach and intestines)
- patients may also experience effects on the central nervous system
In 1–2 weeks, some patients may recover, although others might not. They might experience a focal hemorrhage in mucosa of gingival (relating to the gums of your mouth), uterus, and lungs, a papulovesicular rash (a rash in papules and vesicles) on the soft palate, cervical lymph adenopathy (it occurs in the neck which that enlarges the lymph glandular tissue), and occasional neurological involvement. If the patient still has OHF after 3 weeks, then a second wave of symptoms will occur. It also includes signs of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). If they recover from OHF they may experience hearing loss, hair loss, and behavioral or psychological difficulties associated with neurological conditions. If the sickness does not fade away, the patient will die.
Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever could be diagnosed by getting virus isolation from blood, or by serologic testing using immunosorbent serological assay. OHF rating of fatality is 0.5 percent through 3 percent. There is no specific treatment for OHF so far but one way to help get rid of OHF is by supportive therapy. Supportive therapy helps maintain hydration and helps to provide precautions for patients with bleeding disorders.
Preventing Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever consists of avoiding activity high in tick exposure. This puts persons engaged in camping, farming, forestry, and hunting (especially the Siberian muskrat) at great risk. Those spending time outdoors should wear protective clothing and use insect repellent for protection.
The main hosts of OHFV are rodents like the non–native muskrat. OHFV was first in ticks which gave it to rodents by biting them. Humans get the illness by getting bitten by a tick. The disease also could be transmitted by being in contact with a muskrat. They got infected and ill which lead to death. Humans later were infected by getting in contact with blood, feces or the urine of a dead or sick muskrat (or any type of rat). The virus could also spread through milk from goats or sheep since the virus can live through water. The infection is very contagious. Those who follow all the procedures will have a smaller chance of getting the disease.
- Holbrook MR, Aronson JF, Campbell GA, Jones S, Feldmann H, Barrett AD (January 2005). "An animal model for the tickborne flavivirus--Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus". J. Infect. Dis. 191 (1): 100–8. doi:10.1086/426397. PMID 15593010. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/resolve?JID33019.
- Lin D, Li L, Dick D, et al. (August 2003). "Analysis of the complete genome of the tick-borne flavivirus Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus". Virology 313 (1): 81–90. doi:10.1016/S0042-6822(03)00246-0. PMID 12951023. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0042682203002460.