Uroplatus is a genus of geckos commonly referred to as Flat or Leaf-tailed Geckos. All the comprising species are endemic to Madagascar or nearby islands, such as Nosy Be, where they are found in primary and secondary forests.
The Uroplatus are nocturnal and arboreal. They range in size from about 12 inches (U. giganteus) to 4 inches (U. ebenaui). The larger leaf-tailed geckos spend most of the daylight hours hanging vertically on tree trunks, head down, resting,while the smaller leaf tailed geckos (U. phantasticus and U. ebenaui) spend more time in ficus bushes imitating twigs and leaves. During the night, they will venture from their daylight resting spots, and go off in search of prey. They are all insectivores.
Larger species of Uroplatus are distinguished among geckos in having the largest number of marginal teeth and the highest among all living amniotes. Other rare apomorphic character states include multiple inscriptional ribs, restriction of autotomy planes, and finger-like diverticula of the lungs.
They all have coloration developed as camouflage, most being grayish brown to black or greenish brown with various markings meant to resemble tree bark. There are two variations of this camouflage: leaf form, and bark form. The leaf form is present on only two species, U. phantasticus and U. ebenaui, which are also the two smallest species. All other forms blend in well with tree bark upon which they rest during the day. Some of these treebark forms have developed a flap of skin, running the length of their bodies, known as a dermal flap, which they lay against the tree during the day, scattering shadows, and making their outline practically invisible. These geckos bear a resemblance to the Phyllurus and Saltuarius geckos of Australia. This is a type of convergent evolution.
Uroplatus are found in the herpetology and pet trade, but rarely. Most are threatened due to deforestation and habitat loss, therefore more are taken out of the wild in areas that are being preped for being cut down. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) lists all the Uroplatus species on their "Top ten most wanted species" list of animals threatened by illegal wildlife trade, because of it "being captured and sold at alarming rates for the international pet trade".  Uroplatus spp. are on Appendix II of the CITES list.
During their breeding season, female Uroplatus lay from 2-4 eggs depending on species and conditions.
Habitat destruction and deforestation in Madagascar is the primary threat to the future of Uroplatus geckos as well as collection for the pet trade. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) lists all of the Uroplatus species on their "Top ten most wanted species list" of animals threatened by illegal wildlife trade, because of it "being captured and sold at alarming rates for the international pet trade". It is a CITES Appendix 2 protected animal.
Classification of genus Uroplatus
- Northern Flat-tail Gecko, Uroplatus alluaudi - M. F. Mocquard, 1894
- Spearpoint Leaf-tail Gecko, Uroplatus ebenaui - Boettger, 1879
- Giant Leaf-tail Gecko, Uroplatus fimbriatus - Schneider, 1797
- Uroplatus finiavana - Ratsoavina et al., 2011
- Uroplatus giganteus - Glaw et al., 2006
- Gunther's Leaf-tail Gecko, Uroplatus guentheri - M. F. Mocquard, 1908
- Frilled Leaf-tail Gecko, Uroplatus henkeli - Böhme & Ibisch, 1990
- Lined Leaf-Tail Gecko, Uroplatus lineatus - Duméril & Bibron, 1836
- Uroplatus malahelo - Nussbaum & Raxworthy, 1994
- Uroplatus malama - Nussbaum & Raxworthy, 1995
- Satanic Leaf-tail Gecko, Uroplatus phantasticus - Boulenger, 1888
- Cork-bark Gecko, Uroplatus pietschmanni - Böhle & Schönecker, 2004
- Uroplatus sameiti
- Mossy Leaftail Gecko, Uroplatus sikorae - Boettger, 1913
- Greenbaum, Eli; Bauer, Jackman, Vences, Glaw (2007). "A phylogeny of the enigmatic Madagascan geckos of the genus Uroplatus". Zootaxa (Magnolia) 1493: 41–51.
- http://www.worldwildlife.org/who/media/press/2004/WWFPresitem740.html WWF Top 10 Most Wanted Species
- "Inclusion of Uroplatus spp. in Appendix II" (pdf). Technical comments in support of amendments to CITES appendices submitted by Madagascar. CITES. 2004. http://www.cites.org/common/cop/13/inf/E13i-32.pdf. Retrieved 2 November 2008.